The northern and eastern regions of Russia are well known for their berries, and not only wild ones. In particular, the best blackcurrant varieties for Siberia were created by the efforts of Russian breeders at experimental stations. Consider some of the most popular types of this culture. But first, it’s worth remembering that black currant is good.
Currant and its advantages
Blackcurrant grows in vast territories. According to scientists, the most favorable weather and climatic zone for the full growth, development and fruiting of the specified berry culture is the area between 46 ° and 60 ° north latitude.
But with proper care and advanced agricultural technology, currants are quite capable of producing good yields beyond designated boundaries. So, in the north this berry culture is bred right up to the Khibiny Mountains and Yakutia, in the east its agricultural range reaches Sakhalin Island, and in the south blackcurrants are successfully grown up to the southern Volga and Kuban regions.
Gardeners revered this berry, first of all, because it contains a lot of vitamins C (blackcurrant is actually the cheapest source of this vitamin), A, P, PP1, B1, B2, B6, K1. Blackcurrant is also rich in sugars, tannins and nitrogenous substances, essential oils, mineral salts, iron, copper, manganese, silicon, magnesium, etc.
Such a large number of healing elements naturally affects the widespread use of blackcurrant for medicinal and preventive purposes. Traditional medicine strongly recommends using this berry in the fight against gastrointestinal diseases, whooping cough, scrofula. Indispensable products from the fruits of black currant and decoctions from its buds and leaves for colds, tonsillitis, diseases of the joints, rheumatism, gout, hypertension and other ailments.
Of course, just delicious jams, juices, jams, compotes, marmalades, which will certainly decorate any table, are also prepared from large black currants.
Currant: variety selection
The most popular varieties of black currant in Siberia
The Siberian climate is notable for its heterogeneity. One of the reasons for this is the huge distances that characterize the geography of this region. But in general, at least 2 main characteristic features of the climate of Siberia can be distinguished - this is its severity and distinct continental features.
Therefore, only very unpretentious, strong frost-resistant varieties of currant can give a good fruit here.
Among these varieties, the following can be distinguished:
- Minus one. A relatively new variety of Siberian domestic selection, characterized by a high degree of frost resistance. Bushes Minusinka grow quite tall, with a relatively small sprawling branches. The berries are not very large in size, brownish-black in the process of their development and ripening form medium-long brushes. Ripening occurs in July-August. The variety demonstrates an average yield of 3.2 kg. The greenish flesh of the berries has a pleasant flavoring bouquet. Used in fresh and processed form. The main distribution area is steppe, forest-steppe and taiga regions of the Krasnoyarsk Territory.
- Brown Far Eastern. Black currant of medium maturity. The result of crossing varieties Taiga and Leah. A medium-sized plant, a bush of medium density. Demonstrates a very high degree of resistance to low air temperatures. Usually does not suffer from powdery mildew (however, it is not very resistant to other fungal diseases) and is not attacked by a kidney tick. The berries of the variety are quite large (up to 1.4 g), have a pleasant aroma and excellent sweet and sour taste. The yield of this variety is average - up to about 2.7 kg on average from one bush.
- Hercules. This frost-resistant variety was created in 2000 as a result of selective crossing of the Plotnokistnaya variety with a seedling of a wild Siberian species. It is distinguished by a fairly straight high bush, medium thickening. Large and very large black berries (weighing up to 3.7 g) grow on the bush, which gather in long (several hundred berries) brushes. The fruits have a delicate dessert flavor. Hercules manifests itself as a high-yielding variety (up to 11.5 tons per 1 ha), and its yield is quite stable. It is characterized by unpretentiousness to the state of soil fertility.
- Friendly. Refers to crops with medium maturity. It shows good resistance to autumn and winter cold. Bush growth and berry development are quite intense. The Druzhnaya variety is characterized by high productivity (maximum values reach the level of 7.5 kg from 1 bush). Berries weighing up to 1.2 g are concentrated in brushes of 15-18 berries per average brush. Black fruits have a sweet and sour taste and contain a large number of useful chemical elements. The variety is resistant to columnar rust and bud mites, but suffers from powdery mildew.
- Zoya. Self-made variety. The growth of bushes is quite restrained. At the same time, this variety of blackcurrant is characterized by crops of a fairly high density. The average yield per bush is 1.4 kg, the maximum yield is 7.8 kg per bush. The berries have a dark purple color and a waxy coating on the skin. The weight of one berry is on average 1 g. Zoya shows good resistance to hazel and columnar rust, but is very vulnerable to Septoria.
- Blue This self-fertile variety is named for the characteristic blue (blue) color of ripened berries, which are characterized by a slight waxy coating. The fruits are small, the weight of one berry is on average 0.8 g. The average yield per bush of this variety is 1.6 kg, the maximum yields reach 7.7 kg per bush. This variety of black currant is characterized by a number of advantages, including a high degree of resistance to frost and columnar rust. But the variety can be sick with powdery mildew and mountain ash.
- Biya. The bioclimatic features of this blackcurrant variety are high frost resistance of the buds and flower primordia and a rather low winter hardiness of vegetative elements. For this reason, the plant should be covered in winter with snow from the effects of frost. Berries (average weight - 0.7 g) differ in saturated black color and glandular pubescence. Biya belongs to the varieties of late ripening. It shows an average yield from a bush of 1.4 kg, maximum yields are fixed at 7.3 kg per 1 sow.
Tips for caring for Siberian varieties
Although varieties of black currant Siberian breeding demonstrate good frost resistance, we must not forget about sheltering bushes with snow. This is a very important condition that a farmer must keep in mind in order to get good crops.
When planting seedlings, lowlands and closed basins should be avoided. It is in such places that often in early spring there are frosts that are harmful to berry crops.
Weedy bushes are recommended to be planted at a distance of 1 m between rows and 0.5 m between adjacent bushes in a common row. Bushes of cultivars with high growth should be arranged so that the distance between the nearest bushes is at least 1 m.If the rows are too thick, then it is better to start changing bushes in them before the individuals become old, by about 4 years of harvest.
The best time for planting black currant is considered to be autumn - from September 25 to October 10. It was at this time that the root system grew particularly intensively.
How to plant currants
If the landing site is blown by strong winds and there is poor snow retention there, this operation should be moved to the end of April.
If all these and other useful tips, as well as agricultural rules are strictly observed, ripe berries will give a person a lot of pleasant taste sensations and a powerful help for health.