Pruning fruit trees in spring is one of the important agricultural activities that should be carried out in the process of cultivation of garden plantings. The formation and pruning of all fruit trees should be strictly observing the technology, timing and patterns.
Schemes and Rules
The main pruning is carried out in the spring and is based on the implementation of several rules:
- all shoots incapable of future productivity are subject to removal;
- with excessive thickening of the crown, all unproductive, as well as old branches should be removed;
- shoots that grow down should be removed during spring pruning;
- in the early spring, it is necessary to prune young shoots, which can become an obstacle to the growth and full development of the remaining branches;
- places of cuts are necessarily lubricated with garden var.
When pruning fruit stands, you can use the following basic schemes:
- ring trimming;
- pruning to the kidney;
- side branch pruning.
When removing small and large branches in early spring, it is recommended to use a sharp secateurs. Thick branches should be cut with a saw or delimber. It is important to take into account the fact that the formation of young fruit trees and garden shrubs should be carried out at a temperature of 4 ° C or more. Spring pruning and crown formation should be done before the phase of active sap flow, using the advice of experienced gardeners or reading the video tutorial.
How to prune fruit trees in spring
Types of cropping
In the conditions of home gardening, gardeners practice several types of pruning of garden plantings:
- Forming Cut, produced in order to obtain a convenient crown and the formation of the correct density and relief of the aerial parts of the plant. Timely formation allows you to get a plant that adequately withstands the external loads of the crop.
- Adjust cropping, contributing to the maintenance of good indicators of illumination of the crown and the prevention of overload by young shoots.
- Anti-aging pruning, allowing the plant to renew its potential and stimulating growth, as well as the full development of new branches.
- Recovery pruning, which involves the removal of dry, shrinking and damaged branches, as well as contributing to the process of self-renewal of the fruit tree.
- Sanitary pruning, which can be carried out almost year-round and consists in the removal of diseased and damaged shoots.
It is very important to thoroughly disinfect the working tool immediately before performing work, as well as immediately dispose of all affected wood.
Dates for Moscow region
Pruning of fruit trees should be carried out in order to systematically and properly care for the plant, as well as, if necessary, rejuvenate them, stimulate growth and development, prolong fruiting and prevent damage to diseases or pests. Timely pruning has a beneficial effect on the qualitative and quantitative indicators of the crop.
The implementation of such an event competently and in a timely manner contributes to a significant increase in plant productivity. The optimal time for pruning fruit stands in the suburbs is the early spring. It should be borne in mind that the threat of recurrent, late spring frosts must pass. It is very important to trim before the swelling of the kidneys. In spring, the places of cuts are less susceptible to infection and are delayed as soon as possible. Cutting fruit trees is recommended a few days before the new moon.
Spring pruning of young plants
Pruning of the young garden is carried out from the moment of planting of fruit stands and until the plants enter the fruiting stage. To ensure high productivity, it is necessary to stimulate the growth of the crown to the sides, and not upward. For this purpose, shortening of annual shoots and removal of branches that contribute to thickening of the crown are carried out. Branches characterized by strong development must be shortened by ½ length. Weedy shoots should be cut no more than a quarter of the total length, which will allow you to correctly regulate the growth of the plant, as well as form a powerful, strong and fruitful crown.
|Sweet cherry||On annual plants, a cut is made on top of five buds above the stem. In the next year, for the formation of the first tier, four lateral shoots should be selected, which are shortened at the level of 0.5 m, and the conductor is shortened at a height of 0.7 m. In the third year, thickening and competitive branches are subject to removal. Central conductor shortens in fourth spring|
|Peach||The most common is a cup-shaped formation, which involves the selection of two branches located at right angles to the first pair of shoots, and the division of the stem into four equal parts|
|Apricot||Trimming is done every year, starting from the second year. Strong shoot growth implies a shortening of ½ of the length. The length of the central conductor and the conductors of skeletal branches should be left a little longer than that of the side branches. It is imperative to remove branches that compete and branch off at an acute angle. Weakened branches need to be cut to a third of the length|
|Apple tree||The formation consists in pruning annual apple tree seedlings at a meter level from the ground. Shoots with a wide angle of departure should be shortened by three or five buds from the base|
Pruning old plants in spring
When pruning plants of an adult or an old garden, certain rules must be observed:
- anti-aging pruning is performed in two stages, with a break of three or four years;
- the main measures are aimed at reducing the height of the tree crown, thinning it, as well as caring for the plantings after pruning;
- the reduction consists in trimming the crown top at a height of 2-2.5 m from the lower knot, as well as removing the top of the upper knots by switching to the second-order branches;
- for thinning, all thickening, old and weakened branches are removed that will not allow to obtain optimal plant productivity.
Regardless of the type of anti-aging pruning, it is very important to fertilize the plant by applying basic fertilizer to the trunks.
The top is a part of a plant growing from branches of the first order in a vertical upward direction. If necessary, to reduce the abundant appearance of tops, cardinal pruning of fruit stands is carried out gradually, in about two or three years.
On young and green shoots, the tops are removed by breaking. Spinning tops of two or three years of age have very good ductility, therefore it is enough to bend them with subsequent fixation. Quite often, in the conditions of home gardening, tops are used as stock, and new and promising varieties are grafted onto them.