Potato varieties for the Urals are quite difficult to pick up. Many other vegetable crops that are successfully grown in neighboring areas show a very low survival rate here. This feature is due to abrupt climatic changes and the presence of sufficiently cold and gusty winds.
Grade Selection Requirements
Varieties of potatoes for growing in the Urals for a long time passed a very careful selection. Among the most adapted species are early ripe and mid-ripening, as well as universal varieties of potatoes. Such potatoes are characterized by a high level of unpretentiousness and are perfectly adapted to cultivation in rather difficult climatic and weather conditions.
It should be remembered that both new and traditional Belarusian potato varieties are not included in the list of varieties recommended by the Ministry of Agriculture for planting and growing in the Northern and Southern Urals. Good varieties are classified as zoned.
The best early grades
Early potatoes are usually divided into ultra-early, tubers which can be used in food 45-60 days after emergence, and early ripe with ripening in 60−70 days. In such varieties, ripening begins in July.
|Title||Tuber Description||Pulp description||Ripening period||Sustainability||Productivity|
|"Governor"||Red peel||White, starch up to 14%||Early ripening||High||Up to 2 kg per bush|
|Vineta||The peel is slightly mesh yellow||Light yellow, starch up to 15.2%||Early||Drought resistant||D60 kg / 10 sq. m|
|"Lyubava"||Red peel||White, starch up to 16.9%||Early ripe||To the causative agent of potato cancer||Up to 400 kg / ha|
|"Bullfinch"||Red peel||The pulp is white, starch up to 16%||Early ripe||To the causative agent of potato cancer||Up to 271 kg / ha|
|"Spring is white"||White tubers||The pulp is white, starch up to 16%||Ultra early||To cancer, highly resistant to macrosporiosis||Up to 41 kg / 10 sq. m|
The best mid-season varieties
Mid-early varieties of potatoes fully ripen after 70−80 days. As a rule, Ural potatoes of this ripening period are better stored and have a brighter taste and pronounced potato aroma during the heat treatment. The best mid-season varieties manage to form a decent crop even before the onset of a steady cooling in the Ural region.
|Title||Tuber Description||Pulp description||Ripening period||Sustainability||Productivity|
|"Crown"||Light beige||White, starchiness up to 16%||Mid early||To heat and drought||Up to 38 kg / 10 sq. m|
|"Lukyanovsky"||Light beige||Cream, starchiness up to 15%||Mid early||To heat and drought, to mechanical damage||Up to 45 kg / 10 sq. m|
|"Equator"||Pink||Cream, starchiness up to 19%||Mid-season||To the causative agent of potato cancer||High|
|Bezhitsky||Pink||White, starchiness up to 16%||Mid early||To potato nematode||Up to 45 t / ha|
|Oredezhsky||Yellow||Cream, starchiness up to 15%||Mid early||To the causative agent of potato cancer||High|
|"The effect"||Light beige||White, starchiness up to 19%||Mid early||To viral diseases||Up to 45 t / ha|
|"Aspia"||Light beige||Light yellow, starchiness up to 14%||Mid early||To potato nematode||Up to 44 t / ha|
Such potatoes, even under adverse weather and climatic conditions, are able to give a good harvest both when growing on personal plots and when cultivated on farm fields. Description of such varieties is known only to experienced gardeners and potato growers.
|Title||Tuber Description||Pulp description||Appointment||Sustainability||Productivity|
|Spiridon||Red, oval, with a smooth peel. Tuber up to 160 g||Yellow, with a starch content of 11.9-15.8%||Table, matures in 90-110 days||To the causative agent of potato cancer||138-278 kg / ha|
|Sante||Yellow, oval, with smooth peel||light yellow with a starch content of 10-14%||Universal, matures in 80−90 days||To cancer, potato nematode, late blight, viruses||800-1000 g / bush|
Features of planting and care
Agrotechnical methods of growing potatoes in the Urals have some fundamental differences that must be taken into account by potato growers when planting and in the process of caring for plants throughout the growing season. It is best to use for landing areas represented by light loam with a slightly acid reactionthat contain over 2% organic matter. It is recommended to use crop rotation with a plant such as clover, which should be plowed immediately before planting seed tubers.
In the Urals, potatoes should be planted no earlier than mid-May, when soil temperature exceeds +8 ° С. It is better to plant seed potatoes after the tubers are warmed up and germinated. Vernalized tubers sprout on the 8-10th day, without vernalization, seedlings appear only on the 18-22th day.
Potato: variety selection
When planting seed in this region, a shovel is not always used, and most often a hoe is preferred, and the optimal planting depth is 5-8 cm. The spaces between the rows should be a meter. Furrows should be directed from north to south, which is very important for proper lighting of plants.
During planting, it is necessary to treat the tubers with wood ash, which will help protect the seed from pests. Processed and sprouted tubers are laid in the furrows at the rate of four pieces per meter.
Seed spread over furrows must be covered with humus or well-rotted manure, and then garden soil. By means of a chopper, leveling of the surface of the site is carried out.
Crests formed during planting as a result of further hilling will grow and serve as additional protection for plants from adverse weather factors. Further care for potato planting is the timely implementation of key activities.
|Watering||when the sprouts grow by 7-10 cm above the soil level, that is, approximately two weeks after mass shoots||in hot and dry weather, use at least 12 liters of water per bush|
|at the budding phase, which marks the beginning of the tuber formation phase|
|at the stage of weight gain by tubers, which occurs in the Urals at the end of June – beginning of July|
|Weeding and cultivating||loosening at all stages of the growing season allows an increase in the flow of oxygen to the tubers, and weeding is carried out as weeds grow||surface loosening of the soil, carried out to a depth of not more than 3 cm, is carried out before the appearance of the first shoots and is supplemented by weeding|
|Hilling||it is advisable to carry out the first hilling after the appearance of the first three leaves, the second is carried out 2-3 weeks after the first, before the plant blooms, and the last before the tops are closed||the first method is raking soil from all sides towards the plant and forming them into one “bouquet”. The second method involves pushing the stems apart from each other, adding soil to the middle and raking it from the outside to the stems|
|Top dressing||during the seedling phase in the presence of pale green leaves and poor development||first feeding: 10 l of water + 1 tbsp. l urea + 0.5 l mullein or 1 tbsp. l bird droppings|
|during budding||second feeding: 10 l of water + 1 tbsp. l potassium sulfate + 2−3 tbsp. l ash|
|at the time of flowering potatoes||third feeding: 10 l of water + 2 tbsp. l superphosphate + 200 g mullein or chicken droppings|
|Disease prevention||Spraying during the growing season: the first is prophylactic, the subsequent ones with an interval of 7-14 days||Means "Pennkotseb", with a calculation of 400 l / ha or "Ditan M-45", with a calculation of 300−500 l / ha|
About ten days before harvesting, the tops must be mowed at a height of 10-15 cm, which will reduce the damage to tubers during digging and accelerate the maturation of potatoes.
Ways to increase productivity
Currently, potato growers of the Urals practice several time-tested methods that can increase the yield of vegetables:
- harvesting potatoes, which were planted with larger and more qualitatively sprouted planting material, is possible three weeks earlier, and the harvest itself will consist of more weighty tubers;
- the destruction of peduncles on plants at the beginning of budding, which reduces the outflow of nutrients and increase the yield of potato tubers by 20–25%;
- the use of modern means such as biological fertilizer "Urgas" based on the concentrate of bacteria "Baikal-EM 1", as well as the "Super" compost and Finnish complex non-chlorine fertilizers saturated with microelements, "Kemira Universal" and "Kemira";
- it is possible to achieve high efficiency and a significant increase in the yield and quality of potatoes by laying organic components in all the spaces on the potato field.
In addition, it is very important to use seed for planting, which has passed not only the stages of heating, gardening and germination, but also has been treated with biofungicides and growth biostimulants.
How to plant potatoes
An insufficient amount of time is allotted to the growing season and the formation of a potato crop in the climatic and weather conditions of the Urals. Therefore, so that the yield of this popular vegetable crop is good and allows you to provide the whole family with high-quality, environmentally friendly products, you should not only choose the right variety, but also follow all agrotechnical requirements, as well as not neglect modern and highly effective means for feeding and protecting plants.