Walnut crops in fruit growing occupy a rather modest place. Meanwhile, the fruits of walnuts, almonds and hazelnuts are a storehouse of many necessary and important nutrients. These delicious and very nutritious foods can rightly be classified as dietary.
Crops such as walnuts and almonds are not very popular with gardeners in our country. Hazelnuts, or large hazel (Corylus maxima), on the contrary, are grown quite often in homestead conditions.
Breeders have bred several varieties that are suitable for cultivation in personal plots of Russia and have proven themselves in home gardening in our country.
Walnut (Júglans régia) refers to the species of trees of the genus Walnut and the family Walnut (Juglandaceae). The homeland of walnut is Central Asia.
|Grade name||Varietal characteristic||Features|
|"Moscow region"||Male flowers are collected in thick earrings. In one inflorescence, up to 150 flowers developing from lateral buds on last year's shoots||The simultaneous ripening of stamens and pistils, lack of self-pollination|
|"Sadko"||A hybrid form with medium and large thin-bark fruits that do not differ in mass from the southern market ones. Fruiting in bunches||Good frost resistance|
|"Ideal"||A short, or dwarf, variety suitable for cultivation in central Russia. Fruits are consistently full-bodied and thin-bodied||Extra-fast and very winter-hardy variety|
Almond (Prunus dulcis) is a shrub or small tree from the subgenus Almonds (Amygdalus) and the genus Plum. This is a very photophilous, very drought-tolerant plant due to its well-developed root system and optimal transpiration. The most widespread varieties "Pink fog", "Anyuta" and White Sail which belong to the species Almonds ordinary.
|View name||Species characteristics||Features|
|Almonds Petunnikova||Dwarf shrub up to 1 m in height and with a crown with a diameter of not more than 80 cm||Insufficient winter hardiness. Fruiting in the fifth year of life|
|Almond Ledebour||Shrub up to 2 m tall with large dark green leaves and light pink flowers||High frost resistance. Flowering in may|
|Almonds ordinary||Bushes up to 4 m or trees up to 8 m in height, with a very lush and delicate crown||Includes three varieties: bitter, sweet and brittle almonds|
Hazel also known as hazelnuts, hazelnuts or hazel, is a fairly widespread fruit crop in our country. The fruit of hazelnuts is a very healthy nut, which is covered with a plush.
|Grade name||Varietal characteristic||Advantages and disadvantages|
|Trapezund||High yielding variety. It is characterized by the largest fruits in the world, which are covered with a brown shell with a pronounced gloss.||Suitable for cultivation in the middle lane|
|Adygea-1||It comes into bearing in the sixth year after planting. Fruits weighing up to 2 g. Average yield reaches 10 kg from one bush||Drought-resistant, winter-hardy and very productive variety|
|"Catherine"||Hybrid tall form with bright red staining of foliage and fruits in a raspberry wrapper||The largest hybrid form among the red-leaved|
The following varieties have also proven themselves very well in home gardening: "Circassian II", "Roman", "Khoji", "Ata Baba", "Kutkashen-Niji-69" and "Wartashensky-2/39".
Features of planting in spring and autumn
Walnut seedlings have sufficient drought tolerance and are not demanding on soil quality indicators. If there is a close occurrence of groundwater at the bottom of the landing pit, it is recommended to lay out the drainage. Planting is preferable to perform in the spring, but it is allowed to plant a nut in the fall.
Almond trees are grown from seed or planting seedlings. Landing in any way is recommended in spring. To obtain fruit-bearing almonds, it is required to plant two or three plant specimens on the site, which is due to the characteristics of pollination of this crop.
How to plant a walnut
Hazelnuts planted in the spring have time to take root and prepare the root system for winter cold. Hazelnut seedlings planted in the fall come into bearing much earlier.
According to experienced gardeners, pits should be prepared for transplanting or planting nut bushes approximately three weeks or a month before planting, which allows the soil to acquire the characteristics necessary for growing plants. Landing pit should have a depth of 25-30 cm. It is desirable to plant seedlings in the sunniest and most protected from the winds area. The standard distance between plants cannot be less than three meters.
Dates and features of landing in the regions
Such nuts as walnut, Manchurian, Siebold, gray and black are optimally suitable for cultivation in home gardening in the southern regions of Russia. Walnut and Manchurian nuts also have fairly high winter hardiness, which allows them to grow in regions with a relatively cool climate.
In the south, autumn planting is recommended, and in the more northern regions, planting of seedlings in the spring is optimal. In the middle zone of our country, depending on soil and climatic conditions, both spring and autumn planting and transplanting are carried out.
It is important to consider the fact that nuts grow quickly enough, but enter the phase of active fruiting after at least four years. For nuts, you need to allocate a large landing area. Nearby trees often die.
Timely and competent pruning is a very important nut care measure.
The sparse crown of walnut trees is very convenient in the care and harvest, and the plant does not need a special formation. It is sufficient to regularly remove dried and growing branches deep into the crown.
Almonds, by contrast, need regular pruning, during which dry and diseased branches are removed. Pruning almonds is also important for maintaining the decorative appearance of plantings. As a rule, the procedure is carried out after flowering. In this case, annual shoots are pruned, which allows you to form the most productive tree crown.
The formation of hazelnut bushes at the vegetation stage involves the removal of almost all shoots, except the strongest ones. A well-formed crown in shape should resemble a vase, inside which there is a small number of branches. After the hazelnut has entered fruiting, thinning should be carried out annually, as a result of which dried and broken branches must be removed. Every five years, old branches are cut off, stopping growth and fruiting.
After landing care
In the first year of cultivation, walnut care requires regular, including timely weed removal, loosening of the soil, as well as relatively frequent watering.
Growing a walnut is quite simple. Watering should not be too plentiful. For top dressing, it is recommended to use potash-phosphorus mineral fertilizers and organics.
With the regime of watering almonds, everything is not complicated either. Plants are watered as the soil dries in the volume of one bucket of water per bush. It should be remembered that insufficient watering reduces the flowering period and reduces the volume of the crop. In the spring, it is advisable to fertilize almonds with manure, and in the fall superphosphates and potassium sulphide are used for top dressing.
Hazelnuts are unpretentious plantswhich requires basic conditions for fruiting. Immediately after planting, abundant watering is required at the rate of 20 liters per plant. It is also recommended to mulch trunks in wood shavings. At the stage of active growth, hazelnuts need to be fed with mineral additives. At the stage of fruit formation, urea is used to feed the plant.
Hazelnuts: growing and care
It should be remembered that planting them in areas where the soil is characterized by increased acidity, waterlogging, or increased moisture indicators does not contribute to good fruiting of nut crops.