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Apricot moniliosis, fruit rot, or a monilial burn, is a very common fungal disease caused by Ascomycete Monilia cinerea. The defeat by this pathogen causes the greatest harm in regions with a temperate climate, especially in areas with a fairly cold and humid spring in Russia and Ukraine.
The main signs of defeat
It is customary to distinguish two forms of apricot damage by this disease, which have some differences both in time of defeat and in external manifestations:
- Monilial burn refers to spring diseases. The aggravating factors of the lesion, provoking the most rapid spread, are high humidity indicators, as well as low temperatures and fog during the flowering phase of the fruit tree. The first sign of damage is a discoloration and browning of the petals, then their further withering and drying. Such pathological processes are observed on young leaves or growths and often cause the death of young fruit plants. On adult fruit trees, the stem may crack and gum intensely stand out.
- Fruit gray rot It is a summer form of the disease and affects the fruits at all stages of their ripening. Spores that appear on the fruits very quickly combine into one large mycelium, which provokes wrinkling, drying and decay of the apricot crop that has not yet fully matured.
In home gardening in our country, the defeat of moniliosis has become quite widespread, and the greatest harmfulness is observed in the northwest and central regions, as well as in the Urals, Altai and the Siberian region. Sometimes stone fruit stands suffer from a fungal infection caused by Monilia fructigena. Flowers on fruit trees are affected by moniliosis at a temperature of -1.5 ° C, and temperature of -0.6 ° C is critical for ovaries, which requires timely and competent preventive measures.
Apricot moniliosis: control methods
Correct and timely preventive measures when growing apricot in a homestead economy are an effective measure to prevent massive damage to the garden culture by moniliosis:
- You can not plant an apricot orchard in the lowlands;
- when planning plantings, one should strictly adhere to the optimal distance between apricot seedlings;
- the excessive density of the crown impedes the movement of air masses, therefore, competent and timely trimming can be attributed to preventive measures;
- regular inspections of the crown should be carried out, and if drying flowers, leaves or ovaries are found, the tops of the shoots should be pruned and destroyed by burning;
- it is very important in the autumn period to timely remove and destroy rotting, as well as all mummified fruits;
- in the late autumn period, it is advisable to dig the soil between the rows and in the trunk circles;
- Absolutely all collected foliage should be treated with an 8% urea solution or burned.
Particular importance is attached to the proper collection and storage of harvested crops. Fruits should be stacked in a pre-sanitized container. Store the crop should be in storage with a temperature regime of + 0.5-1 ° C. It is very important to protect the fruits during the collection and transportation, even from minor mechanical damage.
Currently, gardeners are using several methods for ridding fruit stands of moniliosis:
- the most effective and affordable means for processing fruit stands is a 1 and 3% solution of Bordeaux liquid, which is sprayed with apricot trees to the stage of active budding;
- before flowering, garden plantings are treated with Bordeaux mixture in a concentration of not more than 0.5-1.0%;
- 3% iron sulfate, the highly effective and modern preparation Skor, as well as Topsin-M and Horus preparations are good alternative remedies for fighting pathogens of fungal infections;
- very high efficiency is observed in the treatment of stone crops with drugs such as copper oxychloride or derivatives of this agent in the form of "Polychoma" and "Homa";
- in the late autumn period, in the presence of favorable weather conditions, it is necessary to treat the crown of the fruit tree with a 7% solution based on urea.
During the flowering period of apricot, experienced gardeners recommend spraying with 0.1% baseazole, diluted at a rate of 10 g per 1 bucket of water. Such processing can be carried out even in wet and rainy periods.
The most resistant varieties
To the great regret of most gardeners, at present, varieties that are absolutely resistant to the defeat of moniliosis are practically not obtained. Nevertheless, domestic and foreign breeders have bred varieties and hybrid forms that have sufficient resistance to defeat this disease for home gardening, which reduces the number of chemical treatments of fruit stands and makes the risk of crop loss subject to minimum agricultural practices. These include: "Special Denisyuk", "Monastic", "Goldrich" or "Sungiant", "Peter and Paul", "Obolonsky".
How to prune apricot
Such varieties are favorably characterized by a low risk of infection with moniliosis, in addition, they are characterized by exceptional resistance to adverse weather conditions, which makes it possible to grow a popular thermophilic fruit crop even in areas with insufficiently warm climates. Of course, the treatment of moniliosis is an extreme measure. Therefore, it is recommended not to neglect prophylaxis, to purchase healthy planting material for cultivation, and to cultivate the most resistant varieties of apricot in home gardening.
Fruit rot rot is a summer form of the disease and affects fruits at all stages of their ripening.