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The columnar apple tree of the Moskovskoye Ozherelye variety was bred by accident. But subsequently, the hybrid became very popular among gardeners due to its characteristics.
The history of breeding the Moscow necklace variety
In 1960, a breeder from Canada, Vyazhek, discovered a branch on an apple tree of the Makitosh variety, which was structurally different from all other branches. The breeder made a branch stock on another apple tree. So the first columnar apple tree was bred.
Advantages and disadvantages
The advantages of the variety include:
- Disease resistance.
- Regular fruiting.
- Taste qualities of apples.
- Universal use in cooking.
- Duration of storage of the crop.
- Resistant to severe frost.
Among the disadvantages, the life expectancy of the plant is distinguished. After 15 years, the yield begins to decline.
Technical and external characteristics
It is important to study the technical characteristics of the tree in order to calculate in advance what area the apple tree will need.
Crown width and tree height
It is better to start the study of the description of the apple tree with the characteristics of the crown. Crohn of medium thickening, compact. The height of the trunk is from 2 to 3 m. Yablonya Moskovskoe Necklace is suitable for small areas.
The variety is self-infertile. You need to plant pollinating varieties nearby. For this, all varieties are suitable that begin to bloom at the same time as the Moscow Necklace.
The quantity and taste of the crop
The yield is average, up to 10 kg of fruits are harvested from one tree. The apples are oval in shape, the average weight is 165-180 g. The pulp is fine-grained in structure, juicy and sweet.
Moscow Necklace belongs to the winter-hardy varieties. The tree can withstand frosts down to -45 degrees.
Moscow Necklace is highly resistant to diseases and pests. It rarely even needs preventive spraying against diseases.
Apple tree lifespan
The tree has a lifespan of 20-25 years. But already at the 15th year of life, the yield begins to decline.
Features of ripening and fruiting
Also an important characteristic is the ripening period of the crop and the beginning of fruiting.
The beginning of fruiting
The apple tree begins to bloom and give a harvest in the second year after planting. If you plant a seedling in the spring, it will bloom in the same year, which will not have a very good effect on further yield. That is why it is recommended to plant the apple tree in the fall.
The flowering dates of the Moskovskoye Ozherelye variety fall on the first days of May.
The hybrid belongs to winter varieties, so the first ripe apples appear on the tree towards the end of September.
The harvest begins to ripen en masse in early October. It is then that you should start harvesting fruits from the tree.
The period of storage and use of apples
Like all winter varieties, Moskovskoe Necklace is stored for a long time after harvest. The fruits are stored for up to 3 months in a cool, dark place. The use of apples is universal. In food, the fruits are recommended to be consumed closer to winter. Apples are also suitable for making stewed fruit, jams and pastries.
Features of growing in the regions
You can grow the Moscow Necklace variety in any region. Due to its high resistance to frost, the apple tree takes root well even in northern latitudes with severe winters.
Landing technology and care rules
The future yield depends on the correct planting of the seedling in the soil. And with improper care, the tree can often hurt due to weakened immunity.
Preparation of planting material
Before planting, the seedling needs to be prepared so that it quickly takes root in a new place. To do this, in a few hours, the rhizome is dipped in a growth activator. And just before planting, the roots are placed in a liquid clay solution. These measures will be enough.
Required soil composition
The apple-tree of the Moskovskoe Ozherelye variety is undemanding to the soil. The seedling grows well on black soil, loamy and sandy loam soil.
Preference should be given to light fertile soils with neutral acidity.
Timing and scheme of planting seedlings
The most favorable period for planting a seedling is autumn. Planting an apple tree is worth until mid-October. Autumn planting is preferable because during the winter the seedling will take root in a new place, and in the spring it will begin to grow actively. You need to prepare a landing site in 2 weeks. The soil is dug up, the top layer is mixed with manure and urea. Then they fill the bottom with it. A stake is driven into the center.
Place the seedling in the center of the hole, bury it with soil and water abundantly. At the end, tie to the stake. The distance between adjacent trees must be at least 2 m.
Water the apple tree 4 times per season. Most of all, the plant needs liquid during the period of swelling of the buds, flowering, pouring apples. The last time the tree is watered is before the onset of cold weather.
Use only heated water for humidification.
Loosening the soil
Before each watering, it is recommended to loosen the soil and remove all weeds. Loosening before watering will help the roots get more oxygen with the water. You need to weed the soil to a depth of 7-10 cm.
Top dressing foliar and root
In the first half of the season, nitrogen is added to the soil. In the second half of the season, the apple tree needs phosphorus and potassium. In addition, the soil is fertilized with urea, bone meal and manure. For foliar feeding, a boric acid solution is used. The tree is sprayed before flowering and 10 days after.
The plant is also watered with superphosphate, ammonium nitrate and any other complex mineral fertilizers. The main thing is not to overfeed the apple tree.
The apple tree is pruned twice a season - in spring and autumn. But it is not necessary to prune the crown every year. Formative pruning is carried out in the spring. You need to cut off the branches only with a sharp pruner. The first time the plant is pruned after planting. To prevent the seedling from freezing in winter, cut off its top. Also in the spring, young shoots are periodically cut off. In the fall, dry and damaged branches are cut off.
Treatment and treatment of diseases and pests
The apple tree Moscow Necklace will not often have to be treated against pests. This variety is highly immune. But it is still desirable to maintain the plant. For prophylaxis, the tree is sprayed with drugs for pests and diseases several times per season.
In the spring, the tree is treated with Bordeaux liquid or iron vitriol. The second treatment is carried out after 2 weeks. Also, the apple tree is sprayed with biological products that can be used even during the formation of ovaries.
Wintering an apple tree
Although the Moscow Necklace apple tree belongs to winter-hardy, it is still desirable to prepare the tree for winter. First of all, after harvesting, the soil around the trunk is mulched with peat, sawdust or straw. Mulch layer - 15-20 cm.
The lower part of the bark is covered with a durable material that cannot be chewed by mice. During snowy winters, they regularly shake off snow from the branches so that they do not break. These measures will be enough for the apple tree to survive the winter.