Please tell me how to prune and pinch grapes correctly.
The main rule of pruning: during the sap flow, pruning should not be done. The procedure is carried out when the temperature is set at +5 degrees and depending on what it is aimed at. Pruning of young grapes is carried out in order to form skeletal parts - a stem, a sleeve and a shoulder.
Pruning ripe fruiting grapes is to remove all excess branches to give the crown. It is advisable to rejuvenate the crown while leaving 2-3 branches. A long-term shoot is removed leaving a stump no more than 10-15 cm. During spring pruning, up to 85-90% of the annual young growth is removed. This will allow uniform development and will contribute to a good crop of the plant in the future.
Pinching is carried out after 3-6 leaves on the side shoots, in the middle of the vegetative period. In the process of pinching, 2-3 leaves are left on the lateral process, and the crown of the process, in which the shoot growth point is located, is removed. If another process appears on the lateral process, it is removed. Similarly, the complete removal of second-order shoots is carried out in the zone of formation of grape brushes.