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Since ancient times, people have been cultivating grapes. The sun-soaked berry was glorified by poets, heavy bunches inspired artists and appeared in the paintings of great masters. He has always been a symbol of the sun, warmth and fun. Today the vine is grown in different regions. The abundance of early varieties made it possible to grow grapes not only in the southern regions. For example, the Rusven grape variety takes root well and bears fruit in the Middle Volga and even in the Moscow region.
Description and characteristics of Rusven grapes
This variety was bred by joint efforts of breeders from Hungary and Russia. It is a very early pink table variety. The ancestors of the variety are Muscat de Saint Valier and R-66. Rusven grapes are distinguished by their vigor and vigor of the shoots. It tolerates even frosty winters well, and in regions with mild and temperate climates it can winter without shelter.
The bunches of Rusven are large, with an average weight of 300-350 grams, the brushes can reach a weight of 1 kilogram. They have a cylindrical or conical shape. Berries are pink, oval, weighing 50-55 grams and 20% sugar content. The skin of the berries is thin. They are suitable for wine production and fresh consumption. The subtle, sage-nutmeg aftertaste is popular with consumers.
It is a high-yielding variety with a maturing period of 110 days, regardless of the region of cultivation. The vine quickly acclimatizes and begins to bear fruit in the second year after planting. The bunches are perfectly stored, do not lose their presentation during transportation.
Main advantages and disadvantages
Rusven has found admirers among gardeners due to the mass of positive characteristics.
high frost resistance of the variety - withstands temperatures up to -27 ° С;
early ripening of bunches;
resistance to pests and diseases;
unpretentiousness to the composition of the soil;
transportability and keeping quality of grapes.
with high humidity, the berries crack;
the variety is very attractive to wasps, they eat away the contents of the berries.
Wine from Rusven has a piquant aftertaste. The bunches are characterized by uniform ripening.
How to grow a variety correctly
The grapes are unpretentious, the vine takes root well in a new place, early maturity allows you to get the first harvest for 2 years after planting.
Dates and place
For the vine, a place is chosen on a hillock, protected from the wind. A drained area with deep groundwater is selected. You can place grapes under the protection of a house or outbuildings, at a distance of at least 1 meter from the walls.
Propagated by cuttings, which are planted in the ground in spring or autumn. For the northern regions, spring planting (in May) is preferable, so that the vine has time to grow stronger and grow before autumn.
It grows poorly in lowlands, in swampy areas. The highest yield is obtained on fertile lands; if the soil is rocky, natural drainage is created for the vine. The grapes are sensitive to return frosts, in the middle lane and in the northern regions it requires winter shelter.
A pit for a seedling is dug 1 meter deep, 60-65 centimeters in diameter. At the bottom, a drainage layer of coarse pebbles or broken bricks and rubble is laid. Its thickness is 10-15 centimeters.
Next comes a soil mixture of fertile soil, crushed stone and sand in the ratio: 3: 1: 0.5. The pit is filled with fertile soil, it is gradually compacted. The stalk is deepened so that 2-3 buds remain on the surface. Next to the pit, a stake is driven in to support the vine, after 1.5 meters, another stake is driven in, serving as a trellis. Rusven is a variety with a tall vine, the distance between seedlings is about 3 meters.
Crop care rules
Caring for Rusven does not differ from caring for other grape varieties. Bushes need feeding, the vines need to be pruned and protected from frost. It is protected from pests and diseases.
Watering and fertilizing
When planting, cuttings are fertilized with ash or dolomite flour, complex mineral fertilizers are used according to the manufacturer's recommendation. The next time they are brought in after 2 years.
Zarechny Maxim Valerievich
Agronomist with 12 years of experience. Our best summer cottage expert.
Important: when planting, nitrogen fertilizers are not used, they inhibit the growth and development of roots.
For an adult vine, root and foliar (by leaf) dressing is necessary. In the spring, after the snow melts, nitrogen fertilizers are applied, before flowering, 2 fertilizing is carried out with complex fertilizers. Before opening the buds, the grapes are sprayed with a mixture of copper and ferrous sulfate and boric acid.
The next foliar dressing is carried out when the berry reaches the size of a pea. A mixture of potassium permanganate, urea, ferrous sulfate or a ready-made fertilizer mixture is used. To increase the sugar content, with an average size of berries, a potassium complex is added. After harvest - phosphate and potassium fertilizer. Humus is introduced for autumn digging.
In the middle lane and northern regions, grapes are watered only in dry summers. Pour warm water over it.
No more than 40 eyes are left on one Rusven bush. Formative pruning is carried out in the fall, before the vines are sheltered for the winter. Shoots are cut to a ripe vine. When several shoots grow from one place, the strongest is left, others are cut off. In the spring, damaged and diseased areas are removed.
For wintering, the vine is removed from the trellises, tied in bunches and laid in a trench prepared next to the bushes with a depth of 20 centimeters. Cover with burlap and sprinkle with a layer of earth 25-30 centimeters. Or they simply lay the bundles on the ground, cover with burlap, and on top - with plastic wrap, and sprinkle the film with earth so that the shelter is not blown away by the wind.
Diseases and pests
Rusven is resistant to mildew and powdery mildew. It is protected from wasps by placing traps with sweet contents between the bushes, covering the bunches with gauze or placing them in bags of a fine mesh. You can smear the trellis with insecticide to poison the insects.
Cleaning and storage
The grapes are harvested in mid-August. The collection is carried out in dry sunny weather. There should be no dew on the bunches. They are carefully cut without touching the berries. It is convenient to store grapes in boxes with wood shavings at the bottom. The brushes are laid loosely so that they do not touch each other. Top covered with shavings and stored in a cellar or basement at a temperature of + 2 ... + 4 ° C.
Gardeners speak well of Rusven, high yields and winter hardiness allow growing grapes in regions with not too long and warm summers.