The All-Russian Research Institute for Fruit Crop Breeding is one of the oldest horticultural institutions in our country. It is here that new varieties of apple trees for central Russia are being developed. Breeders are painstaking work in the field of creating varieties that will have high adaptability, yield and regular fruiting. Exactly such varieties include the Rozhdestvensky apple tree, the fruits of which are rich in nutrient and biologically active substances.
The variety was obtained 30 years ago as a result of crossbreeding of the Wellsie apple tree and the hybrid form BM-41497 by breeders E. N. Sedov, Z. M. Serova, V. V. Zhdanov, E. A. Dolmatov and G. A. Sedysheva. It belongs to the category of triploid apple varieties, characterized by an early winter ripening period and the Vf gene incorporated, which ensures the absolute resistance to the five scab races.
An apple tree of the Rozhdestvenskoye variety was added to the State Register 15 years ago and is considered suitable for use in intensive horticulture under cultivation conditions on low-growing rootstocks.
The plant is characterized by increased winter hardiness, which is not lower than that of the beloved Antonovka ordinary variety. Yield rates of apple trees are high, regular, and the variety itself is characterized by early maturity.
Obvious advantages of the Christmas tree are presented the immunity of fruits and leaves to scab damage, the attractiveness of fruits with dessert taste, high yield and keeping apples. The disadvantages may include shedding of ripened fruits and a somewhat extended period of harvest ripening. In addition, at the end of the shelf life, the fruit may lose elasticity and palatability.
Apple tree: winter varieties
Fruits, nutritional value and chemical composition
Fruits are characterized by an average or above average value. The mass of an apple can range from an average of 135 to 180 grams. In some years, a significant increase in the average weight of the fruits can be observed. Fruits are characterized by one-dimensionality, slightly flattened shape and insignificant severity of large shares. Thick skin has a medium thickness and glossy tint. The main coloring of apples is greenish yellow. Coating is spread over a significant part of the surface of the fruit and is represented by blurry spots of a red blush interspersed with a cherry shade. The subcutaneous points are large, numerous, gray.
The peduncle is rather thin, long, has a straight shape and an inclined arrangement. Funnel of medium depth, blunt conical shape, with rusty gray. Calyx are characterized by a closed type. The saucer is medium-deep with furrow. The heart has a bulbous shape. Seed chamber closed. Sub-cups short and hollow. The medium-sized seeds are brown in color and ovoid in shape.
The fruit pulp is white in color, has a density, juiciness and delicate sweet and sour harmonious dessert taste, weak aroma. Indicators of the chemical composition of apples of this variety, as well as the taste of fruits, can vary to a large extent from the conditions and the place of cultivation. The average statistics for this indicator in the middle lane of our country are as follows:
- total sugar content 10%;
- the amount of titratable acid 0.5%;
- the amount of pectin substances 14%;
- parameters of the sugar-acid index can vary from 16 to 22.
External indicators of ripe fruits of this variety are estimated at 4.4 points, and palatability - at 4.3 points.
Apple trees are characterized by medium stature and a fast growth rate. At the initial stage, growth rates for an annual seedling can reach 70 centimeters per year. Crohn is characterized by strength, medium leafy and wide pyramidal shape. The main branches differ in power. They are located at an angle that can vary from 40 to 80 degrees.
The bark on the stem has a grayish color and peeling. Fruits are formed on simple and complex gloves. Branches of medium thickness, weak cranked shape, brown staining, with slight pubescence. The nappy buds are pressed and have a conical shape. The leaves are ovoid, short, pointed in shape with wavy edges and helical torsion. The sheet plates are matte, wrinkled, with medium pubescence. Umbrella inflorescences combine from four to six flowers of medium size, saucer-shaped and pale pink color.
Rozhdestvenskoye apple trees begin to form the first crop four years after planting. Young plantings of apple trees allow you to collect more than 150 quintals of fruit per hectare. PBoat carrying is characterized by regularity.
In the middle zone of our country, the ripening period of apples of the Christmas variety falls on the second decade of September. The period of consumer use begins in mid-October and may continue until the first days of February. Ripening apples is characterized by extension.
Landing and care
Young trees are best planted in the late spring. In the middle lane of our country, it is preferable to perform planting in dry and warm weather. It is allowed to plant seedlings in the autumn period before the manifestation of stable cold. Autumn planting is accompanied by mulching of the soil. Mulch perfectly protects the plant in severe frosts, and also serves as an excellent nutrition in the spring. Landing area should be open and sunny.
Almost any soil is suitable for the Rozhdestvenskoye apple tree, however, it should be loose, light, and also should pass moisture and oxygen to the root system well. Clay soil should be improved by adding sand and fertilizer.
Young trees should be planted in planting pits 60 to 60 centimeters in size. Depth should not exceed a meter. Fertilizers in the form of peat and ash should be applied to the bottom of the landing pit, and an earthen embankment, on which the seedling is installed, should be made in the central part. The root system must be neatly distributed, covered with soil and slightly tamped. After planting, abundant watering is carried out.
Leaving involves moderate and regular watering. To ensure the outflow of excess water from the tree, you need to equip special grooves. After watering, loosening of the soil is required. In the spring, crown pruning is performed, which helps to carry out its formation, as well as protect the tree from diseases and pests. The variety has good winter hardiness, but when cultivated in severe frosts, soil mulching should be performed.
In the early years of the apple tree, fertilizer is not required when planting in fertile soil. However, if the planting was made in clay soil, you need to make the introduction of high-quality complex fertilizers intended for fruit trees.
We also offer you to read an article about the varietal features of the Gala apple trees.
Diseases and Pests
Rozhdestvenskoye apple trees have a high degree of resistance to scab. The greatest danger to fruit trees is bark beetles, ticks and scale insects, which can make their way deep into the tree bark. Standard methods of control involve spraying with a solution of "Karbofos".
Significant harm can be caused by insects that infect the leaves, buds and buds of the fruit tree: leafworm, hawthorn, moth, tinnitus and aphids. The control of these plant pests involves spraying before the stage of mass flowering with a solution of chlorophos.
How to choose the apple tree seedling
Christmas is a relatively new variety of apples. Recently, it is increasingly attracting the attention of amateur gardeners in our country, due to the high level of winter hardiness of the plant, good taste indicators of the fruit and the presence of immunity to scab in the apple tree. The plant is unpretentious, and the creation of favorable conditions during cultivation allows to obtain stable high yields of fruits.