Pruning grapes in the fall has a beneficial effect on the yield of the plant, as well as the quality of the berries. The procedure is carried out in two stages. Such an event implies a strictly defined sequence of actions, which is very difficult for a beginner. For gardeners who are just beginning to master the cultivation of grapes, when carrying out pruning of vines, it is recommended to turn to manuals on viticulture, where this procedure is presented in pictures.
Benefits of Autumn Pruning
In the autumn, pruning of the vineyard is carried out on fruitful bushes. Just such pruning dates make it easier to shelter grapes for the winter to protect against freezing. In addition, due to the formation of the vineyard in the autumn, the buds bloom earlier, before the sap flow phase, and an earlier harvest can be expected.
In the spring, it is recommended to prune the vineyard, whose age does not exceed three years. Quite often, a side effect of spring pruning is the drying of the vine and the death of the plant. If a more mature, intensively fruiting vineyard is cut off at this time, the so-called "crying vines" which leads to acidification of the kidneys and stops their blooming. Autumn pruning avoids undesirable problems with intense juice production.
Grape pruning in autumn: when to prune
The standard terms for pruning the vineyard directly depend on the grape variety, as well as climatic or weather conditions in the growing region. For uncultivated culture, it is allowed to carry out autumn pruning at any time of the winter-autumn period, but before the start of active vegetation.
|View of autumn pruning||Trimming Duration||Features|
|Pre-cropping||Held in the first decade of October, before the onset of the first frost||All unripe, green shoots are pruned. Shoots that have a bright brown or dark brown stain and that produce a slight crunch with a slight bend cannot be removed.|
|Main, or shaping, pruning||It is carried out from the middle to the last days of October, immediately after the first frost, a couple of weeks after the preliminary pruning||A preliminary inspection of the bush and an assessment of its condition. Further, the bush is clarified and dry, broken, too thin, insufficiently ripened, incorrectly located shoots are removed. The most developed fruit vines should be trimmed into arrows|
Choosing Tools for Cutting
If necessary, prune young, no older than three years old grapes, you must use the standard garden pruner. The same tool is used for pruning grapes during harvesting.
To trim older plants, you will need:
- special knives - sickles;
- garden secateurs;
- grape files or hacksaws.
Secateurs are used to prune annual and biennial vines with a thickness of not more than 1.5 cm, as well as for thin sleeves. To obtain an even cut, secateurs equipped with two blades are used.
For pruning perennial vines with a thickness of not more than 8 cm, use should be made of bow saws. Thicker shoots are trimmed with a hacksaw. The delimber, which is a type of pruning shears and allows you to remove branches in hard-to-reach places, is very convenient to use. All tools involved in trimming should be sharpened and clean.
Autumn grape pruning for beginners
Trimming Technology for Beginners
It is recommended to start pruning from the top of the plant. The correct and most competent pruning of the vineyard involves the following sequential actions:
- At the very beginning of September, all young shoots that managed to stretch in height half a meter from the ground should be removed on perennial sleeves.
- Shoots on sleeves whose height is more than 80 cm from the ground should be minted. The standard chasing of the apex is about 10% of the entire length of the shoot. In addition, all side stepsons need to be trimmed.
- After the leaves have massively fallen, around mid-October, you should decide on the most developed shoots. It is necessary to find a pair of shoots whose height does not exceed 80 cm from the ground.
- The lower shoot, which was formed from the outer part of the sleeve, should be cut off, leaving 3-4 eyes, which will allow to obtain a high-quality knot of substitution.
- Located on the opposite side and slightly higher from the first shoot, it is necessary to trim, leaving at least 5 and no more than 12 eyes. Such an escape is a fruit arrow. The number of ocelli should be equal to the diameter of the shoot with the addition of a pair of spare ocelli.
It is important to remember that the thicker the vine, the greater part of it must be cut off. Slices should be performed on a node with a tendril or bunch. Sections are recommended on the inside of the shoots.
As a result of pruning, the plant remains the most powerful perennial trunks that grow perpendicular to the soil, as well as sleeves with buds, necessary for the formation of new vines and fruit brushes.
We also offer you to read an article about the features of spring planting of seedlings.
Care after autumn pruning for “dummies”
After the pruning procedure, the vineyard should be treated from pests and diseases. After processing, grapes are prepared for shelter. Young bushes should be bent and covered with soil. Under this shelter, plants can easily withstand temperature drops to minus 14-16 ºC. With more significant temperature drops, the grapes should be covered with a wooden box and covered with roofing felt.
For adult bushes, it is recommended to use a slightly different method of protection in the winter. After pruning, it is advisable to remove the vine under the tunnel from a plastic film. Before this, you should remove the whip of grapes from the supports, bend to the ground and cover with fir spruce branches. The edges of the film coating must be pressed to the ground. In areas where winter is not too cold and snowy enough, grapes of frost-resistant varieties and hybrids do not need shelter.
Tips and tricks for beginners
As a rule, strict adherence to the instructions for pruning vineyards allows you to perform the procedure quite easily and quickly. However, sometimes novice gardeners make some mistakes that adversely affect the yield and plant health.
Scheme of pruning an old vine bush for the winter
The main mistake of beginning winegrowers most often becomes insufficient, very sparing pruning of grapes. Many gardeners cut only the apical part and dry vines, which inevitably leads to thickening. This does not allow the shoots to receive the necessary amount of heat, lighting and nutrition. To avoid negative consequences, you should remove 60-90% of the growth, observing the rest of the requirements for pruning the vine.