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Grapes is a culture that requires constant attention and proper care from gardeners. In the spring, grape care involves the implementation of a number of comprehensive measures aimed at maintaining the plant's health and increasing its productivity.
When and how to open grapes after winter
After positive air temperatures are established and the topsoil is dried, shelter should be removed from the vineyard. In the southern regions, where there is practically no risk of plant damage by late spring frosts, you can fully open the vine at average daily temperatures of at least + 5 C.
Untimely removal of the shelter can provoke the germination of the kidneys directly below it and the breakage of the vine when tied. To avoid premature germination of the buds when growing grapes in the more northern regions, you should open the plant gradually. First, you need to make the so-called ventilation in the shelter and wait for the green cone to appear. Only then can the vineyard be fully opened.
Experienced growers determine the optimal time to remove shelter from plants according to the state of the vine. The signal that the vineyard should be opened completely is the presence of sprouting shoots, and not swollen sprouts.
Immediately after removing the winter shelter, it is very important to warm the soil around the bush as soon as possible in order to awaken the root system. For this purpose, water-loading irrigation with warm water and black film mulching are used.
Possible problems after wintering
Open vineyards require assessment after winter. In the winter period, especially in the presence of significant low-temperature indicators, most often on table grape varieties that are characterized by insufficient frost resistance, the death of a large number of eyes can be observed. As a result, it is required to leave a significant number of eyes when pruning, which will allow in the spring to provide a full load on the vine.
Recently, many winegrowers have been experiencing difficulties with wintering of grapes even in conditions of not very severe winters, which is due to climate change, temperature differences and a decrease in the height of snow cover in most regions. One of the most dangerous natural phenomena for the vineyard is the alternation of frosts with prolonged thaws. Such temperature differences are especially fatal for grapes in the early spring.
The most successful wintering of the plant will be provided by:
- the choice of varieties and hybrids having increased frost resistance and winter hardiness;
- competent planting of grape seedlings;
- frost-resistant stocks;
- optimal plant formation;
- reliable and timely shelter of the vineyard for the winter;
- timely opening of the vineyard in the spring;
- high-quality watering and top dressing of bushes, katarovka;
- rationing of bushes with shoots and bunches with reasonable intensity.
Only compliance with the whole range of agrotechnical measures will reduce the risk of freezing of the vine in winter and damage to the root system by rot in the spring.
How to form a bush of grapes in spring
Preventive treatment for diseases and pests
Protecting the vineyard from damage by pests and diseases is an indispensable part of the complex of agrotechnical measures for the cultivation of this currently popular crop.
|Processing Duration||Used product / preparation||Processing technology|
|After removing the winter shelter||Iron or copper sulfate||Bare Vine Processing|
|In early May, after the fifth leaf appeared on young shoots - “on the fifth leaf”||Systemic drug "Chorus" against mildew and oidium||At a concentration of 5-10 g per each hundredth|
|In early May, after the fifth leaf appeared on young shoots - “on the fifth leaf”||The drug from the tick "Sanmayt" and the starting "Plantafol"||Spraying the vine in the morning|
|3-5 days before the mass flowering of grapes||A mixture of "Ridomila Gold", "Topaz", the insecticide "Decis" and the drug "Vuksal-combi B"||Spraying the vine in the morning|
|In the flowering phase||Vuksal-Kombi B and Maxikrop-Zavyaz||Spraying the vine in the morning|
If the vine bushes overwintered without complications, then the excess number of shoots should be normalized by pruning, which is recommended to be completed before the buds open. In addition, spring pruning contributes to an increase in the amount of incoming nutrients to the berries, facilitates the care of bushes, and forms and rejuvenates the plant.
|Indications for spring pruning||Features of spring pruning|
|Less than 75% of shoots were damaged||15 eyes should be left on each vine, removing the excess|
|Over 75% of shoots were damaged||Excess and old shoots are pruned|
|There is a complete death of the kidneys, but the whole tissue||Cropping all the shoots for a couple of buds|
|Complete withering away||Removing the whole aerial part and restoring the bush by grafting to the root|
In the first two or three years of plant cultivation, pruning of bushes is recommended only in the spring. However, such pruning is often aggravated by the “cry” of grapes, or the flow of juice, which negatively affects yield. For this reason, further pruning of bushes is carried out in the autumn period, which greatly facilitates the shelter of plants for the winter period.
How to stop the flow of juice
The cry of the vine is called the abundant flow of juice or apiary from wounds or sections on the shoots. On the one hand, this phenomenon signals the viability and good work of the root system of the plant. Concentration refers to natural processes in the spring and very often stops by itself in less than a month. Sometimes in the spring, the "crying" vine blackens as a result of soaking.
The amount of released apiary directly depends on the size of the grape bush and can range from 200 ml to 2 l from each plant. DSolid juice flow significantly depletes the soil and makes it less moist, with an insufficient amount of mineral nutrients. Untimely pruning or breaking of the vine, accompanied by abundant "crying", can provoke the drying of a plant or branch.
Currently, several effective methods of forcibly stopping sap flow from the vine are practiced.
|The way to stop the "crying" of the vine||Event Technology|
|Coating Method||Coat the slice as much as possible with red oil paint on a natural drying oil with the addition of chalk and boric acid to a sour cream|
|Cauterization method||At a thin vine tilted down with the help of a lighter fire, gently burn the tip, which provokes clogging of the sap conduction channels and a quick stop of sap flow|
|Retraction method||A laborious, but effective method based on pulling together a vine with soft aluminum wire|
|The use of special drugs||The use of the so-called artificial bark - balsam "Etisso", which covers the place of cut|
Significantly reduces the "cry" of the vines strengthening the root respiration of the vine bushes with the help of early spring irrigation, followed by loosening of the soil. We also offer you to read an article about supports for grapes.
Spring watering and top dressing
The proper organization of the system of irrigation and top dressing of the vineyard in the spring is very important. Watering grapes is recommended to combine with root dressing with water-soluble fertilizers.
|Feeding Times||Event Technology|
|The period of early spring "crying" vines in April||Moisture charging irrigation, high-quality loosening and mulching, application of wood ash|
|Kidney swelling period on the vine||Conducting root dressing using 15 g of ammonium nitrate and 15 g of superphosphate on each bush|
|A week before mass flowering||Watering at the rate of 25-40 liters per bush with water with the addition of 15 g of ammonium nitrate, 25 g of superphosphate and 1 g of sodium or potassium humate|
|If necessary, carry out additional dressing||Foliar top dressing by spraying foliage with micronutrient fertilizers, including iron, zinc and manganese|
It is necessary to carry out foliar top dressing in the morning or evening hours, not under the rays of the scorching sun. The amount of watering may vary depending on the condition of the soil and the age of the vine bush. A good solution in terms of irrigation measures is the use of a special drip irrigation system.
How to protect grapes in the spring from disease
Spring work in the vineyards is not only about taking care of already cultivated plants. At the same time, grape seedlings should be planted, as well as the reconstruction of the vineyard by replacing unproductive or uncompetitive bushes using grafting by cuttings.