Garlic is not inferior in popularity and relevance to such a common plant as onions. Both green crops are planted in summer cottages and household plots not only by beginners, but also by experienced gardeners.
Perhaps every gardener involved in the cultivation of vegetable crops should know when to plant garlic in the winter, as well as how to choose planting material and in what way a plot for planting should be prepared. Only knowing how to plant garlic correctly, you can count on getting a very high quality and high yield.
The homeland of garlic, or Állium satívum, is the territory of Central Asia. The popularity of this vegetable culture among many peoples is due to its specific pungent taste, as well as a characteristic smell. The plant contains thioethers, or organic sulfides, and is widely used in complex medical therapy due to its high antiseptic effects.
Slices of garlic bulbs are usually called cloves. They can be used as seeds, and are also widely used in cooking as a seasoning or raw. In addition, other parts are edible in this plant. The use of leaves, arrows, and peduncles of young plants is practiced in many cuisines of the world.
There are certain technologies and rules that explain how to plant winter, or winter, garlic in the fall. You can plant winter garlic not only in orderly rows, but also in a semicircle, grooves or scatter - each gardener chooses a planting method on his own.
The choice of material for planting in the fall
The types of garlic that are found in the climatic conditions of our country can be divided into four main types:
- spring garlic: shooter and non-shooter;
- winter, or winter, garlic: non-shooting and shooting.
Most spring garlic varieties belong to the category of non-shooting and have small bulbs, as well as several rows of cloves arranged in a spiral around the stem part. For winter garlic, on the contrary, the ability to shoot is characteristic. Large teeth of this plant are arranged in one row. Each head, or onion, can exceed 150 grams in weight.
Varieties of winter garlic are not very many. The most popular category is purple garlic, which has stripes. This variety is unpretentious in care, is very well preserved and is characterized by high frost resistance. Experienced gardeners give preference to zoned varieties that exhibit high yields.
To perform the proper planting of winter, or winter, garlic, it is necessary to select the largest and strongest cloves. The skin should be removed from the surface of several teeth, which will allow to check the planting material for stains and dents. Any garlic cloves of dubious quality or underweight should be discarded.
It is advisable to analyze garlic bulbs immediately before planting, which will not allow planting material to lose moisture. It is very important to "remove" the bottom of the prepared cloves. In order to prevent lesions by pathogenic microorganisms, you need to soak the garlic for several minutes in a solution of ordinary table salt. The solution should not be very concentrated: salt is added to the water at the rate of 1 teaspoon for each liter of water. Then, the processing of planting material in an aqueous solution of copper sulfate is performed. You can use a weak pink solution of pharmacy potassium permanganate.
How to plant garlic in the winter
When and how to plant, at what depth and distance
The timing and methods of planting largely depend on climatic conditions. In central Russia, it is best to sow from the end of August to the end of October at a stable temperature, and in the southern regions it is recommended to land in late October or mid-November. It is required to focus on the minimum plus temperature. It is best to plant garlic three weeks before severe frosts.
Even if the landing dates are missed, planting material can be planted, but to a greater depth. Too early planting can be protected from frost by adding a layer of mulch, which will cover the emerging green seedlings. As with the cultivation of any winter crop, it is best to select a landing site on a hill. Otherwise, stagnation of moisture will have a detrimental effect on plants. The ideal option is to plant winter garlic on high ridges.
For winter garlic, light soils in the form of loams, as well as loams with neutral acidity, are preferred. It is better to choose a place with high-quality lighting. When planting in a shaded area, the distance between the cloves should be increased. Furrows for sowing should have a depth of 10 centimeters, row spacings should be about 20 centimeters. The standard "step" between the cloves of winter garlic should be done no more than 15 centimeters. When sowing in October, you need to withstand a 5 centimeter deepening.
How to plant garlic seeds
On properly developed and well-formed plants, it is recommended to leave arrows, which are peduncles, on which small bulbous bulbs will appear. Their sowing is also carried out in the winter. The standard technology for sowing such onions is as follows:
- prepare a bed for autumn sowing and two weeks before planting, fill the ridge with ash, compost, superphosphate and potassium sulfate;
- plant garlic bulb bulbs in the autumn in the grooves, and then sprinkle with soil and tamp the soil a little.
You can mulch the plot prepared for sowing the bulbs with wet newspapers, in which holes should be made, and plant seeds in the form of bulbs. On top of the mulch you need to sprinkle with a thin layer of soil. In the spring, such a mulch will delay the growth of weeds and allow the seeds of garlic to germinate very quickly. In addition, due to the mulching layer, moisture and heat of the planting soil are retained.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about the features of cultivating onion-garlic.
Tips & Tricks
To get a high yield of large and fragrant garlic heads, you should follow some simple recommendations:
- when planting winter garlic, special attention should be paid to checking seeds or planting material;
- if the winter period is mild and not very frosty, then you can not sprinkle or mulch the planting of garlic;
- small bulbs in July produce decent-sized single tooth teeth that will be the best material for planting in the winter on a large garlic bulb;
- depending on the characteristics of the climatic zone, the planting of garlic in the winter should be carried out from late September to mid-November.
How to prepare the soil for planting garlic
Only knowing in what time frame it is possible to plant winter garlic, how to correctly select the right planting material, and also in what ways the site is prepared for planting, you can get a high yield of this valuable garden crop.