In the middle zone of our country, grapes began to be widely cultivated relatively recently. Many beginners and inexperienced growers are interested in questions: when to open the plant after winter and what are the top-priority measures to be taken in the spring in the vineyard? First of all, after almost complete snow melting, it is necessary to correctly determine the time for opening the vines and starting the process of grape vegetation.
When and how to open grapes after winter
Most often, growers use such methods of sheltering the vineyard for the winter period, such as hilling, half-shelter or partial shelter, as well as full shelter of the bush. Depending on the method of shelter, the amount of measures that plants will need is determined. After the positive temperature values of air are established and the soil is dried, the vineyards should be opened.
The grapevine must be freed from the shelters used, removing, among other things, insulation mats, wooden shields, roofing material or film. When using an earthen shelter, the vine needs to be cleaned from the ground. Vineyards cultivated in the southern strip of Russia open in the first decade of April. In the middle lane and on the Volga territory, the shelter is removed in the last decade of April or in the first decade of May. In more northern regions, shelter may be removed later.
Many winegrowers finally remove their shelter from the vine bushes after the threat of even minor spring frosts has completely passed. However, too long a vine under shelter in conditions of positive temperatures can also have a very negative effect on the plant. Therefore, often on warm and sunny days, gardeners remove the film cover from the grapes, dry the vine and again cover the plants until stable positive temperatures occur.
When to open grapes in spring
Protection of grapes from spring frosts
Experienced gardeners know that sleeping buds on grapes can easily withstand a short-term temperature drop to -3-4 ° C, and buds that have already passed the growth stage often die at -1 ° C. Such biological characteristics of the plant suggest a very careful attitude to grapes in the spring, when the weather is not yet stable enough. The greatest harm is often done to the vine by nightly drops in temperature.
Above the trench should be installed arcs or angled wooden slats, on top of which non-woven covering material agrotex or spanbond is laid. This protection of the vine retains the possibility of ventilation and allows you to save heat. It is undesirable to use a plastic film to protect against spring frosts. Such material often causes the shoots and buds to heat up, and also provokes damage to the vine by mold and fungal diseases. In the daytime, the vine must be aired.
Non-woven covering material allows the vineyard to withstand temperature drops in the soil zone to -3 ° C. If necessary, additional warming of such a greenhouse is used. The soil should be moderately moistened by watering during the day. Such events will preserve the viability of the vine bushes in the conditions of an unexpected sharp cooling.
After reading the corresponding article on our website, you can learn about the features of planting grapes with cuttings in spring and autumn.
Grape Care after Disclosure
In the early spring, immediately after opening, the vineyard is processed to prevent damage by pests or diseases. Particular importance should be given to preventive measures after abundant moistening of the soil and plants, which can provoke infection with mildew.
Before conducting spring processing of grape bushes, it is necessary to trim and tie them. After high-quality drying, pruning of young plants, as well as bushes that were not cut in the autumn, is carried out. Pruning the grape bush must meet the following requirements:
- the procedure should begin with the removal of all shoots unnecessary for the plant, including broken, dried, thickening crown of the grape bush;
- the thicker the vine, the longer shoots can be left;
- the cut is made as sharp as possible with a garden tool, at the internode and above the eye by three centimeters;
- the fruit link should be formed only from a strong and well-developed vine;
- for fruiting, it is advisable to leave ripe annual vines with a diameter of 6 to 12 mm;
- last year the fruiting vine is pruned, and from the pair of shoots located on the knot of substitution, it is necessary to leave only the internal shoot.
After pruning, preventive spraying of grapes against diseases and plant parasitic insects should be carried out. For this purpose, modern fungicides and insecticides are used: Nitrofen, the insecticidal preparation Karbofos and the tick remedy Oxychom. A good result is given by spraying the vine with a solution based on 0.8 kg of urea, 0.2 kg of copper sulphate or 0.25 kg of iron sulphate. To combat fungal infections, Bordeaux fluid is used, with which each plant is watered under the root.
In the spring, it is best to make mineral fertilizers, which are necessary for grape bushes for the active growth and development of green mass. It is very effective to add 15 g of ammonium nitrate and 15 g of superphosphate under each grape bush. In addition, depending on the condition of the soil, plants may require moisture recharge spring irrigation.
Garter of the vine is performed in an inclined or vertical position on the trellis. If necessary, the support posts or wire are updated on the trellis structures. In the spring, agricultural practices such as weeding, soil loosening, and organic mulching should not be neglected.
How to care for grapes in spring
There is a set of mandatory measures to take care of grape bushes in the spring, after the winter shelter is removed from the plants. Even if the vineyard could not be wintered without loss, competent restoration measures, supplemented by full-fledged care, including watering, fertilizing, pinching and preventive spraying, will allow plants to recover quickly and guarantee a good harvest.