Tomatoes (Solánum lycopérsicum) - annual or perennial herbaceous plants belonging to the genus Solanum, or Solanum, from the Solanaceae family, or Solanaceae. For many years, tomato has been a very popular and sought after vegetable crop.
Characteristics of varieties for open ground
When choosing a variety or hybrid form for cultivation in the open field, preference should be given to early, preferably standard, tomatoes, which do not need pinching and are characterized by the compactness of the bush.
It should be noted that some determinant and semi-determinant hybrid forms and varieties, bred primarily for open ground, perfectly bear fruit in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Besides, indeterminate tomatoes grown for greenhouses are known, which demonstrate good yield in the garden.
The best varieties for open ground
A careful selection of a variety of tomatoes for planting is very important, as some grow better and bear fruit in the open air, and for others it is important to have a protected greenhouse soil.
Unpretentious, optimally suitable for beginners and inexperienced vegetable growers and, subject to agricultural technology, manage to give a good harvest before the onset of a cold snap. It is these tomatoes that belong to the category of early ripe. Inflorescences on stunted tomatoes are laid after the first five leaves, and plant growth is limited to the last inflorescence.
|"Watercolor"||Early ripening tomato, ripening in an average of 95 days||Red. The shape is oval. The average weight is 95 g. The taste is good, pronounced tomato, with a slight acid||About 4 kg per square meter||Increased drought tolerance|
|"Supermodel"||Early ripening tomato, ripening in about 100 days||Red-pink color. The form is elongated. The average weight is 117 g. The taste is good, pronounced tomato, sweetish||About 5 kg per square meter||It responds well to irrigation and top dressing with complex mineral fertilizers|
|"Alpha"||Early ripening tomato, ripening in an average of 85 days||Red, rounded, weighing 60-80 g. Designed for fresh consumption||Total yield of the order of 6.2 kg per square meter||Late blight resistance|
|"Antoshka"||Early ripening tomato, ripening in about 95 days||Yellow, rounded, weighing 65-70 g, with sugary pulp, universal use||Total yield of about 5.5 kg per square meter||Average resistance to major diseases|
|"Krakowyak"||Early ripening tomato ripening in an average of 80 days||Red, flat-round, with fleshy pulp, weighing 50-70 g, best used for salads||The total yield of about 1.5 kg per bush||Average resistance to major diseases|
Tall large tomatoes
Gardeners are attracted by their productivity and fruiting duration. Very popular, but require increased attention.
|Barmaley||Early ripening, with maturation in 98 days||Pink, flat round, medium dense, fleshy, weighing more than 0.2 kg, salad purpose||Total - up to 16 kg per square meter||High productivity and marketability|
|"Bik Beef-F1"||Medium early, with maturation in 70 days||Red, rounded flat, with dense flesh, weighing about 0.3 kg, salad use||Total - up to 12.7 kg per square meter||Resistant to tobacco mosaic virus, cladosporiosis|
|"Steak"||Medium early ripening in 105-109 days||Red, relatively dense, rounded, weighing about 0.28 kg, salad||Total - up to 11.5 kg per square meter||Resistant to alternaria leaf spot, cladosporiosis, TMV|
|"Athlete Maslova"||Medium early ripening in 110-120 days||Red, flat-round, with fleshy flesh, weighing about 0.4 kg, salad purpose||Total - up to 12.5 kg per square meter||Resistant to major pathogens|
|Giant Lemon||Mid-ripening, ripening in 110-140 days||Bright yellow, fleshy, flat round, weighing 0.7-0.9 kg, universal use||Total - up to 14.5 kg per square meter||Resistant to major pathogens|
New varieties (“Big Mommy” and others)
Almost every year new hybrid forms are introduced that combine the best quality characteristics, excellent taste, yield, as well as increased resistance to the most harmful and common diseases.
|"Hajduk-F1"||Ultra-mature semi-determinant hybrid, matures in 80-85 days||Red, weighing up to 140 g, universal use||High||Friendly yield, comprehensive resistance to disease and adverse weather conditions|
|Cyrano F1||Indeterminate early ripe hybrid||Red, rounded, with a pointed top||Guaranteed High||Integrated disease resistance. Bronze Tolerance|
|"Siberian trump card"||Large-fruited, standard tomato||Raspberry red, weighing up to 0.7 kg, with very sweet pulp||Productivity up to 5 kg per bush||Virtually no need for herding|
|"Big Mama"||A very early determinant variety ripening in 85-95 days||Red, heart-shaped, dense, weighing 0.35 kg, with richly sweet pulp, universal use||High||Resistant to most diseases|
|"Openwork-F1"||Early ripe hybrid ripening in 105-110 days||Red, roundish, dense, fleshy, non-cracking, weighing 0.26 kg, salad purpose||Productivity up to 8 kg per bush||Resistance to powdery mildew, verticillosis, apical and root rot, root sampling|
Taste qualities of ripe fruits play an important role in choosing a variety. Most often, vegetable growers and summer residents prefer tomatoes with sweet and meaty pulp, which perfectly complement vegetable salads and are suitable for harvesting in the winter.
|"Dina"||Early ripening, harvest in 104-110 days||Yellow, slightly elongated, fleshy, weighing 0.3 kg, universal purpose, with a high content of carotene||Productivity up to 3.5 kg per bush||Medium Disease Resistance|
|"Quiz"||Mid-early variety ripening in 112-120 days||Intense red, flat-round, fleshy, weighing up to 0.2 kg, salad purpose||Total yield up to 95 t / ha||Resistant to major pathogens|
|"Miracle of the Earth"||Early ripe and very tall variety||Round, pink, with a delicate dessert flavor, weighing up to 0.5 kg||Productivity about 4 kg from a bush||High drought tolerance, adaptability to temperature extremes|
|"Pink flamingo"||Mid-early, semi-determinant, gives a harvest in 110-115 days||Plum, pink, sweet, firm, weighing up to 170 g||High yielding variety||Resistant to major pathogens|
|Siberian troika||Medium early, standard, relatively new variety||Red, pepper-shaped, weighing up to 0.35 kg, sweet, salad use||Productivity up to 4.8 kg per bush||High disease resistance|
Phytophthora-resistant tomato hybrids
The development of late blight on tomatoes directly depends on weather conditions. Phytophthora affects tomato bushes at high moisture levels - about 75-80%. Fortunately, varieties and hybrids resistant to this disease have been bred.
|Oak||Early ripening, ripening in 85-105 days||Red, fleshy, rounded, weighing up to 110 g||Up to 7 kg per square meter||Late blight resistance|
|Gnome||Ultra-ripe, the crop is ready in 87-110 days||Red, round, fleshy, weighing up to 65 g, universal use||Up to 3 kg per bush||Late blight resistance|
|"Snowstorm"||Mid-ripening, ripening after 115-120 days||Red, fleshy, non-cracking, round, up to 99 g, salad purpose||High||Late blight resistance|
|"Academician Sakharov"||Indeterminate mid-season||Red, flat round, multi-chamber, sweet, weighing up to 0.3 kg, universal purpose||High||Late blight resistance|
|"Tsar Peter"||Mid-season determinant||Red, ovoid, smooth, dense, weighing up to 90 g, universal use||Productivity up to 570 kg / ha||Late blight resistance|
Early and Superearly Varieties
An important selection criterion is the ripening period of tomatoes. Many gardeners and vegetable growers prefer to grow fruitful, unpretentious, ultra-early tomato varieties for open ground.
|Aurora F1||Ultra-mature hybrid, determinant, matures in 78-85 days||Intensively red, roundish, fleshy, weighing 110-120 g||Total - 12-15 kg per sq. m||Resistance to Alternaria, VTM|
|"Arctic"||Ultra-ripe, determinant, yields in 78-80 days||Pink, rounded, weighing 20-25 g, universal use||Total - 1.7-2.5 kg per sq. m||Medium Resistant to Disease|
|Gavrosh||Ultra-ripening, standard, ripens in 80-85 days||Red, rounded, weighing up to 50 g, universal use||Total - 1-1.5 kg per bush||Late blight resistance|
|"Linda"||Ultra-ripe, determinant, gives fruit after 78-80 days||Red, dense, rounded, weighing 40-90 g, universal use||Total - 215-319 kg / ha||Resistance to Fusarium, Verticillosis|
|"Liana"||Ultra-mature, determinant, matures in 80-85 days||Red, dense, rounded, weighing 60-80 g, universal use||Total - 40-45 t / ha||VTM Resistance|
The best varieties for growing in Russia
Tomatoes appeared in Russia in the 18th century and still have not lost their relevance and popularity. Today, gardeners in our country know what types of tomatoes it is preferable to plant in a particular region of Russia.
Varieties of tomatoes for open ground (video)
For Moscow region
The Moscow region is very extensive, and climatic and weather conditions in different areas may have some peculiarities. Nevertheless, there are varieties and hybrid forms that work great both in the southern and northern suburbs.
|"Siberian precocious"||Early ripe, determinant variety, ripening in 114-127 days||Bright red, fleshy, flat round, weighing 60-110 g, salad use||Total - up to 7 kg / sq. m||Resistance to brown spotting and TMV, cold resistance|
|"White filling red"||Early ripe, determinant, gives a harvest after 100-110 days||Red, rounded, fleshy, weighing 80-140 g, universal use||Total - 8 kg / sq. m||Disease resistant|
|Sultan||Mid-early, determinant, maturing in 93-112 days hybrid||Red, flat round, weighing 150-200 g, universal use||Total - 144-565 kg / ha||Resistance to verticillosis and fusarium|
|"Anyuta-F1"||Early ripe, determinant, the crop is ready in 75-80 days||Round, red, weighing 110-120 g, universal use||Total - up to 12 kg / sq. m||Resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus, black bacterial spotting, alternariosis and fusariosis|
|Nevsky||Early ripe, determinant, ripening in 85 days||Rounded, red, smooth, weighing up to 100 g, universal use||Productivity is 4.6 kg / sq. m||Disease resistant|
For the Urals
The best tomatoes for the Urals are characterized by excellent resistance to possible frost even during the summer period, relative unpretentiousness, as well as stable yield regardless of growing conditions.
|Bull Heart||Mid-season, indeterminate, gives a harvest after 100-117 days||Large, meaty, tasty, weighing more than 0.2 kg, universal use||About 3.8-5.0 kg per bush||Adapted to adverse growing conditions|
|Ural-F1||Mid-season, indeterminate, ripening in 116-120 days||Red, flat round, fleshy, weighing 0.35 kg, salad use||Total - up to 8 kg per bush||Resistance to TMV, cladosporiosis and fusariosis|
|"Intuition-F1"||Medium early, indeterminate, fruits are ready for use after 94-117 days||Bright red, fleshy, rounded, weighing 0.11 kg||Total - 26-32 kg / sq. m||Resistance to the tobacco mosaic virus, cladosporiosis, fusarium|
|Niagara F1||Mid-ripe, indeterminate, ripens in 100-117 days||Bright red, pear-shaped, weighing 95 g, universal use||Productivity - 8 kg / sq. m||Adapted to adverse growing conditions|
|Biysk Rose||Medium early, determinant, ripening in 105-109 days||Pink, flat round, 0.25 kg, salad use||Total - 4.6 kg / sq. m||Adapted to adverse growing conditions|
As a rule, the cultivation conditions of tomatoes in this region are quite complex, which leads to increased requirements for the choice of variety or hybrid form. Plants should easily withstand late spring and early autumn frosts, as well as temperature differences during the growing season.
|"The nobleman"||Mid-season, determinant, ripening in 103-117 days||Raspberry, fleshy, heart-shaped, weighing 131-250 g, salad use||Total - 160-583 kg / ha|
|"Barbara"||Mid-ripe, indeterminate, ripens in 114 days||Pink-raspberry, dense, cylindrical, weighing 70-90 g, universal use||Total - more than 1.5 kg per bush|
|Glossy||Medium Early, Determinant Variety||Red, oval, fleshy, weighing up to 0.1 kg, salad use||High|
|Gina||Mid-season, determinant, gives harvest after 125 days||Red, round, fleshy, weighing 0.28 kg, universal use||Total - up to 10 kg / sq. m|
|"Caspar-F1"||Early ripe, determinant, ripening in 120 days||Red, fleshy, pepper-shaped, weighing 0.14 kg, universal use||High|
The climate of the republic of Bashkortostan is temperate continental, with a fairly warm summer period and snowy, very cold winters. Weather in the summer in this area is largely determined by the influence of air masses, and the choice of tomatoes should be approached very carefully.
|"Agatha"||Early ripe, determinant, ripening in 113 days||Red, fleshy, flat round, weighing up to 99 g, universal use||Total - 5.8-6.7 kg / sq. m||Medium resistant to disease|
|Giant-10 Novikov||Mid-season, indeterminate, bears fruit after 123 days||Pink-raspberry, fleshy, flat-round, weighing up to 0.6 kg, salad purpose||At least 3 kg per bush||Medium resistant to disease|
|"Ground Gribovsky"||Early ripe, determinant, ripening in 111 days||Red, rounded, up to 92 g, universal use||High yield||Disease resistant|
|"Sanka"||Early ripe, determinant, ripens in 87 days||Red, fleshy, rounded, weighing 150 g, universal use||Total - 50-65 t / ha||Medium resistant to disease|
|"Lady fingers"||Early ripe, determinant, the crop is ready in 111 days||Red, elongated, fleshy, weighing 140 g, universal use||Total - up to 10 kg per bush||Disease resistant|
How to grow tomatoes in open field
For growing tomatoes on a personal plot, you should choose the brightest place where plants can receive a sufficient amount of natural light and heat. The timing of planting in the ground can vary not only in different regions, but also in different regions of Russia.
When to plant seedlings
If gardeners in the southern regions can safely sow tomatoes directly into the soil, then when cultivated in the middle lane, it is preferable to use the seedling method of cultivation.
At the time of planting, the plants must have time to develop well, and their height can vary from 25 to 35 cm. Seeds of late varieties and hybrids are recommended to be sown for seedlings in mid-March. Mid-season can be sown two weeks later. After a couple of weeks, seeds of early ripe and early ripe tomatoes are sown.
How to care
Proper sowing provides seedlings within a week. In order for the seedlings to be suitable for planting and to turn out to be as strong as possible, it is necessary to carry out the following plant care:
- Dive plants are recommended two weeks after emergence;
- watering is carried out with warm water, under the root, while avoiding excessive moisture in the soil, and also avoid overdrying;
- the temperature regime must be maintained at a level of 22-24 ° C, which will not allow the main stem to stretch until the moment of planting.
How to grow tomatoes (video)
Before planting seedlings, it is advisable to feed a couple of times with complex fertilizers, which are bred in accordance with the attached instructions.