The currently existing regional grape assortment, which was formed on the territory of Moldova, is able to satisfy not only demands of an industrial scale, but also the taste preferences of most consumers. Moldavian varieties are among the most important in world winemaking.
Today, the trends in the development of viticulture suggest not only the improvement of existing varieties, but also the creation of new hybrid forms of grapes (GFV) table and technical orientation. For this reason, work is underway in the field of breeding, designed to bring GFV, which will meet the following requirements:
- cultivation without the use of shelter in the winter;
- maximally protected from defeat by mildew, gray rot, oidium and anthracnose;
- native species with phylloxera tolerance.
Plants currently zoned are characterized by high quality characteristics, but are not sufficient for widespread cultivation of frost resistance, winter hardiness, resistance to damage by fungal diseases and phylloxera.
A significant part of the varieties is characterized by poor productivity and a high level of requirements for growing conditions, which has a negative impact on profitability.
The Moldavian Research Institute of Viticulture and Winemaking NPO Vierul, together with the Department of Plant Protection at the Chisinau Agricultural Institute, carried out work on the development of complex-resistant hybrids. The best zoned varieties in combination with highly resistant complex hybrids served as initial plants when creating parental pairs.
"Kishmish" Moldavian: growing
Popular Moldovan grape varieties
Some table varieties of Moldovan breeding popular among gardeners were obtained as a result of works on complex hybridization of European varieties and American varieties. However, most winegrowers still cultivate very high-quality and promising zoned crops.
Technical grade "Gayloz"
White grapes with an average yield and insufficient resistance to disease. It is popular due to its excellent taste, it is widely used in the production of table wine and in blending with many varieties. High acidity and insufficient sugar content make it unsuitable for fresh consumption.
Poame Playa, or White Round
The most common white industrial grape in Moldova. Unpretentious in cultivation, and the average yield can vary from 80 to 100 kg / ha. Ideal for winemakers, and is also widely used in the manufacture of cognac.
The grape cluster has a cylindrical shape. Absolutely round berries of white color and gave the name to this variety.
Technical grade "Poma-Bryazy"
Red grapes of late ripening. Large clusters have medium density and conical shape. A sufficiently high sugar content of 19% combined with an acidity of not more than 7% make this variety very popular for creating high-quality table wines.
It belongs to the category of average yield. Very frost resistant. The average yield can vary from 80 to 100 kg / ha. The plant is practically not affected by fungal diseases. The wines obtained from this grape have a pronounced and refined taste. The berries have a slightly rounded shape and dark blue color with a bluish tint.
Technical grade "Chorkuta-nyagre"
Red grapes, which is quite demanding in agricultural technology and whimsical to care for. Significant disadvantages are absolute instability to the low temperature regime and the defeat of fungal infections. A variety of medium-late ripening. The berries have a rich blue color and are an ideal raw material for the manufacture of high-quality long-aging wines.
"White Suruchensky", or "P-63 -38"
The result of work on the crossing of varieties "Ichkimar" and "SV-20 -365". The resulting plant underwent a thorough subsequent selection using an infectious background. Berries are a classic white grape variety for universal use. Ripening occurs in the last decade of September.
"Moldova" or "X1-22 -38"
The result of lengthy work on the crossing of the popular variety "Guzal-Kara" and the complex interspecific hybrid grape "Save Villara 12-375". The resulting variety refers to the table direction and characterized by late ripening of the crop.
"Glory to Moldova" or "Shahin of Iran"
Grapes from the selection of the Moldavian NIIIViVwith an early to medium crop maturity. It is characterized by large and beautiful clusters weighing 500 g. The berries are large, cylindrical in shape. The plant is characterized by high productivity, lack of pea, winter hardiness up to -22 ° C, high commodity rates and transportability.
Moldovan grape planting rules
A significant part of varieties and hybrids are poorly adapted to adverse weather conditions and cultivation in low-temperature conditions. Such varieties are cultivated by winegrowers of the southern regions.
When planting, special attention should be paid to the following subtleties and nuances:
- it is important to take into account the characteristics of bush growth, since most of them have strong growth and a tendency to thicken planting;
- the formation of seedlings requires long sleeves and free space for growth;
- for most varieties, the optimal planting pattern is to maintain a distance of 5x4 m;
- the seedling to be planted should not have dried or frozen roots, and the root system of the plant itself is recommended to be treated with a solution of "Humate";
- the soil when planting should be fertile. Complex fertilizers should be added to the depleted soil;
- it is unacceptable to plant grapes of such varieties on a site subject to through winds with a high level of groundwater.
Near the seedlings, it is imperative to dig in a support stake, which will correctly direct the growth of the vine.
The standard set of care measures does not have significant differences in agricultural technology for the cultivation of most grape varieties. However, to obtain the most stable and high-quality crop, some features should be considered:
- a significant part of the species is zoned for cultivation in areas with warm and mild climatic conditions, which requires sheltering plants for the winter period. Immediately after pruning, put the bush on the ground and cover it with foil or dry hay;
- the use of high-quality mulch has a positive effect on the growth and development of such grapes, and also allows you to maintain plant health in the winter. For mulching, it is recommended to use a well-rotted humus that fits around the stem;
- in addition to organic fertilizer, which the plant receives from the mulching layer, it is useful to feed grapes with mineral fertilizers. When digging the soil, it is recommended to add potassium-phosphorus fertilizers for plants;
- most varieties are unstable to damage by major diseases. Therefore, it is necessary twice a year to carry out preventive spraying with Bordeaux liquid in a concentration of not more than 1%.
Pruning can be done both in spring and autumn. If for long-growing plants, a long pruning is required, then on weak-growing plants, pruning depends on the quality and length of the shoot.
You may also be interested in an article in which we talk about grapes of the "Radiant" variety.
Reviews of winegrowers
Before choosing Moldovan grapes and planting them on your site, you should familiarize yourself not only with the peculiarities of agricultural technology, but also choose the best option for the climate or a hybrid plant. In addition, it is important to determine the purpose of the berries.
According to the majority of winegrowers, when growing a significant part of table varieties from Moldavian selection as a non-covering culture, eye damage is almost always observed at a temperature of -22 ° C. Especially popular among amateur gardeners is the raisin raisin, obtained as a result of crossing varieties "Cardinal" and "Pink sultana".
Of particular interest is Kishmish Moldavian, which was a wonderful result of the selection work of the Moldavian experimenter M.S. Crane. Obtained by crossing the sort of "Kishmish pink" and black dessert "Victory". As a result, one of the most promising and upscale seedless species with excellent taste indices was developed. He honorably passed the test of time and is characterized by winegrowers as extremely productive, allowing you to get more than 250 kg of berries per hundred square meters.
How to care for grapes
For most winegrowers, it is not a secret that the demand for plants of Moldavian selection in many countries of the world is high. Such grapes are especially popular in Italy, where it is grown on an industrial scale. The low level of frost resistance of the culture and the insufficient number of sunny days in a large territory of Russia do not allow growing a significant part of the varieties of Moldavian selection. However, in the warm southern regions, they are increasingly preferred not only by experienced but also beginner growers.