Grapes in Siberia grow and ripen quite well, subject to the correct choice of variety or hybrid form, as well as adherence to cultivation technology. Annually, breeders and amateur winegrowers produce new varieties that are perfectly adapted for growing in the difficult climatic conditions of this region.
The cultivation of vines in Siberia has its own characteristics, which are due to the very short and often cold summer period for heat-loving crops. In the southern part of Western Siberia, especially in the virgin regions, the continentality of the climate is increasing, and the formation of the climate of Eastern Siberia, in addition to the territorial location of the region, is influenced by the features of the relief.
However, the climatic conditions of Siberia have their pluses for viticulture: there is a very low risk of damage to the vineyard by phylloxera or downy mildew.
The main difficulty for beginning growers is the cultivation of grapes in open ground. Many gardeners refuse this method in favor of growing in a greenhouse. Protected soil provides good growth and development of the vine, and also allows you to get a plentiful and high-quality crop.
In order to grow a full-fledged and well-bearing vine, you should choose the right variety. Demonstrate high yields in Siberia can only early varieties or partially mid-ripening in the conditions of film shelter. It is advisable to use grafted seedlings on hardy variety stocks of varieties from North American selection or Far Eastern wild grapes.
Technologies of Northern Viticulture
Despite the difficulties associated with the cultivation of grapes in Siberia in open ground conditions, many experienced winegrowers in the region successfully grow the most suitable varieties outside of greenhouses.
|Variety name for open ground||Plant description||Berry description||Grade Features|
|"Beauty of the North"||Obtained from the crossing of varieties "Dawn of the North" and "Typhi pink." Very early ripening. Bushes are vigorous, large, loose, medium-dense brush, conical or branched, weighing up to 255 g||The berries are large, slightly oval, whitish with a pink tinge. The skin is thin, strong. The flesh of the berries is fleshy, juicy||Resistant to gray rot and cracking berries. Frost resistance up to -25 ° С|
|"Swallow"||The variety was obtained from crossing grapes Madeleine Anzhevin and Kokur Red. Extra early ripening. Bushes of medium height, flowering bisexual. 325 g cylindrical brushes||The berries are medium, slightly oval, dark blue. The skin is thin. The pulp is fleshy, juicy||The plant is often affected by wasps. Sufficient frost resistance|
|The variety is obtained from crossing grapes "North" and "Victory". A table variety with a very early ripening period. Bushes are vigorous. The flower is bisexual. Large, conical, medium density brushes||The berries are large, oval, dark purple. The pulp is fleshy, crispy. Waxy coating is thick enough||High resistance to mildew damage, susceptibility to oidium damage. Frost resistance up to -25 ° С|
|Zilga||A universal variety with an early maturity. Bushes are vigorous. Brushes are dense, large, cylindrical, with a wing. Average weight up to 410 g||The berries are large, slightly oval in shape, black and blue. The pulp is mucous. Tasting score 7.1 points||Resistant to defeat mildew, oidium, gray rot. Frost resistance up to -26 ° С|
|"Soloviev-58"||Received from crossing varieties "Gayyar-157" and "Pearl Saba". Dining room, with early ripening. The bush is medium-sized. The clusters are very loose or loose, small, cylindrical.||The berries are medium, round, white with a grayish-golden tan. Taste with nutmeg||Resistant to mildew and rot. Frost resistant|
Beginner winegrowers are encouraged to grow this thermophilic and rather capricious crop using root crops in protected ground.
|Variety name for covered ground||Plant description||Berry description||Grade Features|
|Tukay||Table grade of premature ripening. The bush is overgrown. The flower is bisexual. Brushes medium density, large, cylindrical, winged. Average weight 850 g||The berries are medium, round, white, with seeds||To mildew, oidium unstable|
|Rusven||Very early ripening. Bushes are vigorous. Medium-dense or dense brushes, large, cylindrical, medium weight up to 550 g||The berries are large, round, matte pink. The pulp is juicy and sweet||Resistance to mildew, oidium. Frost resistance up to -25 ° С.|
|Amirkhan||Table, early ripening. The bush is overgrown. The flower is bisexual. Dense brushes, large, cylindrical, weighing up to 850 g||The berries are large, oval, pink. The taste is simple, pleasant, with a slight muscat||Frost resistance is average. The variety may be affected by gray rot.|
|Dining form early ripening. The bush is medium-sized. Functionally female type flowers. Brush loose, large, conical in shape, weighing up to 830 g||The berries are very large, oval or ovoid, pink, reddish in the sun. The skin is thin. The pulp is fleshy. The taste is very pleasant and harmonious.||Resistance to mildew, oidium, gray rot. Frost resistance up to -25 ° С|
|Kara Jigi||The bush is overgrown. The flower is bisexual. Medium or loose brushes, medium, conical||The berries are small, ovoid or round-oval, black. The skin is thick and strong. The pulp is fleshy, juicy||Insufficient frost resistance. The variety is very affected by oidium|
Greenhouse cultivation technology
Growing grapes in greenhouses is very promising and especially in demand in areas where spring frosts are often observed, and the summer period is quite short. The technology for growing grapes in a greenhouse has a number of differences from growing in open ground. To obtain a good result, it is very important to strictly observe agricultural technology, providing plants with optimal temperature conditions, timely feeding and watering, and competent cutting of grape bushes.
- The greenhouse construction for growing grapes should be as high as possible, not lower than 3 m, and spacious enough.
- It is recommended to give preference to durable structures equipped with high-quality lighting devices and heating equipment.
- When using powerful heating systems, it is required to strictly monitor the humidity indicators and carry out systematic ventilation.
- Despite the adaptability of some varieties to growing in closed ground conditions, it is necessary to timely carry out manual pollination.
- Whether or not to mint shoots and tear off leaves that obscure the clusters when grown in a greenhouse, each grower decides on his own, based on the state of the plant and the load.
When cultivating grapes in greenhouses, the gardener needs to pay attention to measures for feeding and feeding the soil. Greenhouse grapes need good watering. If the inside of the greenhouse is quite dry and airing is carried out, then mildew affects grapes extremely rarely. For the purpose of prevention, treatment is carried out with potassium permanganate or systemic drugs.
The rules of cultivation in open ground
When growing winter-hardy and early grape varieties zoned for cultivation in Siberia, some agrotechnical requirements should be adhered to:
- ordinary planting of a vineyard in open ground should be located in a direction from north to south;
- It is also recommended that vineyards be planted along the southern walls of buildings or solid enclosures;
- the standard distance between the rows should be at least one and a half meters, but can be increased to two meters when planting from east to west;
- it is necessary to adhere to the distance from buildings to the vineyard per meter, which allows to increase the area of plant nutrition and facilitates the maintenance of the vineyard.
It should be stocked with a film or non-woven covering material, as well as arcs that are installed above the vine bushes in the face of the threat of spring frost.
Autumn pruning is carried out in two stages. The first pruning is performed from mid-August to the end of September. During this period, the prolific vine and the thinnest and weakest branches are removed. The second pruning allows you to create a fruit link or a knot of substitution.
After reading the corresponding article on our resource, you can find out how to properly prepare the grapes for winter.
Tips & Tricks
Climatic and weather features of the Siberian region imply compliance with the following rules when growing grapes:
- it is very important to correctly calculate the load of plants by the crop and prevent overloading of the grape bush;
- it is necessary to provide shelter for the overwintered grapevine not yet tied to the trellises for the period of the strongest spring frosts;
- proper agricultural technology involves the acclimatization of plants and excludes the introduction of a large number of nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
How to plant grapes in Siberia
Timely removal of the shelter in the spring will protect the vine from aging and allow the plant to be hardened. The implementation of competent care makes it possible even in conditions of risky farming to obtain guaranteed high and quality grape harvests.