Garden strawberries, often called summer residents strawberries, is a perennial plant that tolerates both winter cold and summer heat. On the one hand, in order to grow this culture on its site, it is enough to prepare the beds and place planting material on it. However, on the other hand, not everything is so simple!
Throughout the growing season, strawberries are exposed to many dangers: attack by pests, infection with viruses and fungi. No less fatal for her is the lack of nutrients. All these problems can negate the efforts of the gardener and repeatedly reduce the yield.
How to recognize that strawberries are sick
A healthy strawberry is always different from the one on which the pest or pathogenic microflora is posed. It is possible to recognize that something is wrong with the landings, according to several signs:
- change in the shape of the leaves - twisting, reducing or increasing the plate, their deformation;
- discoloration of various parts of the plant - veins on leaf blades, stems, leaves, fruits;
- the formation on stems, leaves and fruits of spots - dry and weeping, brown, red, white, with pubescence or without it;
- absence, deformation or falling of ovaries and flowers;
- the appearance on the plants of a web, white foam (similar to saliva) or soot deposits;
- drying or wilting of parts of plants;
- death of plants located in close proximity to each other.
All these signs can indicate that the plantings are infected with some disease or were invaded by pests, which have a lot of strawberries. At this point, it is important to find out why such changes occurred. Correctly diagnosed will help in time to save the landing.
Pests of garden strawberries
At the first stage of their activity, one can not even suspect the settlement of beds with strawberries with pests. Small, sometimes microscopic, insects can greatly weaken plants, which often leads to their death during the wintering period. No less dangerous are insects and the fact that they are often carriers of diseases. To preserve strawberry bushes and crops, it is important to detect traces of their activity in time.
Most often, the following pests inhabit strawberries:
|Pest name||Signs of plant damage||Control measures|
|Strawberry Nematode||The pest is very small, so it is almost impossible to detect it visually. When the nematode is affected, young leaf blades grow deformed, their cuttings are shortened. The stems of the plant grow and form nodes resembling cauliflower. Berries are few, small and deformed.||Crop rotation with a return to its original place after at least 7 years, warming up young plants at a temperature of 46 degrees for 10 minutes. The soil where infected strawberries grew is treated with lime.|
|Straw Mite||The pest has microscopic dimensions and lays eggs on leaves that have not yet developed. Leaf blades grow shriveled, oily. The flowers look healthy, but the berries are small.||Warming up seedlings at 46 degrees for a quarter of an hour. Processing plantings with colloidal sulfur or Karbofos immediately after emergence. During the formation of buds, re-treatment is carried out, but with Neoron. With severe damage, the plants are mowed and burned.|
|Spider mite||The leaves affected by the pest turn yellow and gradually dry. On the underside, leaf blades are completely covered with a very thin cobweb, on which grains of pest can be seen.||Processing plants with malathion after harvesting, followed by covering the beds with a film. With a massive lesion, the plants are mowed and burned.|
|Strawberry weevil||The pest lays the larvae inside the berries, which makes them whiten, but not sow, and deformed. Young weevils, emerging from the fruits of the plant, gnaw leaf blades.||Processing plantings with infusion of tobacco or wormwood. During the period of mass flowering - treatment with insecticides and abundant mulching of beds with chopped straw.|
|Aphid||Infected plants become smaller and deformed, the flowers crumble without forming ovaries, the leaves curl.||Processing plants with infusion of garlic or shag, Parathion insecticides or tetraethyl pyrophosphate solution (at least one month before harvest).|
Pests such as birds and wasps can also cause tangible damage to planting strawberries. To distract the former, between the ridges there are turntables with pieces of mirrors or foil, ratchets or red beads sprinkled before the berries ripen. Wasps are distracted from the ridges by banks with sweet syrup, placed in a distance from strawberries.
How to treat strawberries for diseases
Garden strawberries are affected by rot, spotting and wilting caused by fungi and viruses. It is not difficult to see that the plants are “sick”, because rarely will anyone disregard the fact that the leaves or flowers of strawberries are yellow or covered with noticeable spots of red or brown color. Such signs should be a signal for action - the processing or complete removal of strawberry bushes from the site.
Most often, strawberries suffer from the following diseases:
|Disease name||Signs of plant damage||Methods of struggle|
|Fusarium wilt||The edges of the leaves turn black and gradually crumble. Further, the spots spread over the entire leaf blade, petioles and stems.||Removal of affected plants from the beds, treatment of seedlings with Agate, crop rotation.|
|Late blight wilting||Veins on the leaves and inside the stem turn red, the bush lags behind in growth. Leaf blades bend in the shape of a bowl and brighten, acquiring a gray color. The roots completely die out over time.||Processing of young plants before planting with Humate K, removal of affected plants and crop rotation.|
|Powdery mildew||Leaf blades are twisted along the shared axis, acquiring a purple hue. A white coating appears on the surface of the leaves. It also covers the buds and berries.||Before flowering and after harvesting, treatment with Topaz, Azocene or soap solution with the addition of copper sulfate.|
|Gray rot||Yellow or brownish small spots with pubescence appear on the leaves. The fruits are mummified, and the plant is gradually covered with brown spots and dries.||Processing plantings in spring with a Bordeaux mixture, closer to autumn - with the Azocene. In summer, it is advisable to mulch ridges with needles or straw.|
|Black root rot||The ground part of the plant is unchanged, but brown or black constrictions appear on the roots. As a result, the lower part of the outlet turns brown and completely dies.||Before planting - heating seedlings. Throughout the growing season - soil treatment Trichodermin.|
|Brown spotting||Brown spots on the leaves, merging, lead to complete yellowing of the plate and its death.||Spraying seedlings with a Bordeaux mixture, Ridomil or Metaxil.|
|White spotting||The leaves are covered with purple dots, merging into brown spots.||Spring treatment with Falcon, Euparen or Ordan.|
|Wilt||Leaves and petioles lose turgor and lie on the surface of the soil. Young shoots brighten, and adult leaves turn yellow.||Tillage before planting with iron sulfate, watering adult plants with Fundazole and Trichodermin. In case of mass damage - removal of plants with roots.|
Lack of chemical elements
External changes in garden strawberries can also occur with a lack of nutrients. Starvation in this case can be expressed not only in growth retardation in individual specimens, but also in a change in the shape of fruits and leaf blades, a change in their color and marketability. Many summer residents do not understand why strawberries turn yellow or red, because the soil is decontaminated, and the beds are regularly treated with special compounds from pests and diseases. In most cases, the answer is simple - she simply does not have enough food.
Find out what you need to feed strawberries, you can by the appearance of plants:
- nitrogen, if the leaves are pale and small, and fruiting is weak or absent altogether;
- phosphorus, if the old leaves are small and have acquired a reddish tint, and yield has decreased;
- potassium, if the leaves turn red along the edge, in the middle they become bluish, wrinkled, and the berries become smaller and lose their taste and aroma;
- magnesium, if the leaves change color to yellow, purple or red, maintaining a green color along the veins, and the berries turn white and remain small;
- boron, if the leaf blades turn yellow, the veins on them turn red, and flowering and fruiting are absent.
During top dressing, you can not violate the recommendations set forth on the packaging by the fertilizer manufacturer, since an excess of nutrients and trace elements is as harmful to strawberries as starvation.
Avoiding problems: general recommendations
There are several rules that will help to avoid any problems when growing strawberries:
- Crop rotation. Strawberry beds are recommended to be transferred from time to time to a new place, and you can return to the old after at least 4 years. During this time, the causative agents of "strawberry" diseases have time to die in the soil.
- Timely watering and removal of excess moisture. Overdrying the soil, as well as its overmoistening, can provoke a surge in fungal or other diseases. To prevent either one or the other, it is important to water the strawberries regularly, and make the beds more or less high, so that with high humidity they are blown by the wind.
- Maintaining soil fertility. Proper nutrition of strawberry bushes will strengthen the natural resistance of plants and increase the strength of their growth and productivity. It is important to annually add organic matter and complex dressings with microelements to the ridges.
- Keeping clean. Weeds and last year’s garden litter can be a source of infection or a house of pests. It is important from the autumn to thoroughly clean the site of weeds and tops, burning damaged fragments, and sending healthy ones to a compost pile.
- Compliance with landing standards. Having arranged the strawberry bushes too closely, the summer resident risks losing all the plants, because between them diseases and pests will spread faster. In addition, thickened beds are poorly ventilated, and plants lack nutrition.
Why do strawberry bushes dry
Prevention is a very important point when growing strawberries in your own area. In time, taking steps to eliminate the risks of infection with rot or plant pests, you can completely save both the plants themselves and the crop.