Garden strawberries are grown everywhere, but in some regions, especially with a cold unstable climate, they require special care. The Ural belongs to such a difficult strawberry garden. Snowy and at the same time very frosty winters alternate here with summer, in which there are not so many nice warm days, and autumn and spring often drag out and turn into a series of cloudy days with rains or even snowfalls.
What varieties are suitable for growing in the Urals
It is important for Ural gardeners to correctly approach the problem of growing a berry culture, and you need to start with the choice of variety. Garden strawberries - the plant is very warm and sun-loving. With a lack of light or heat, it can grow, but will not bear fruit. In addition, this culture very poorly tolerates winter frosts, or rather - deep freezing of the soil. It is these criteria that must be considered when selecting varieties.
What characteristics should have a strawberry suitable for the Urals:
- Early maturity. In the Urals, with the exception of its southern part, summer is short, and conditions comfortable for growth and fruiting of strawberries are limited to 4 months (maximum). The sooner the garden strawberry begins to bear fruit, the greater the yield from it can be obtained.
- Frost resistance. Soil freezing in the Urals is much more active due to the abundance of frosty days in winter and autumn.
- Resistance to getting wet. Autumn in the Urals is rainy, and soils, especially in the highlands, as well as in its middle and northern parts, poorly pass moisture. Because of this, it is possible to get plants wet, including garden strawberries.
- Resistance to rot. The climate of the Urals contributes to the active spread of a variety of bacterial and fungal diseases over planting.
How to plant strawberries
There are not so many varieties that fall under the listed criteria, however, Russian breeders have developed fairly resistant varieties that are successfully grown in the Urals.
|Grade||Ripening period||Winter hardiness||Variety Characteristics|
|Dawn||Early||High||Bushes are powerful, but at the same time not very loose. Resistant to spotting and anthracnose|
|Beauty Zagorye||Middle||High||Tall bushes with a powerful root system and large leaves. Fruits of great taste, sweet and sour, large|
|Festival||Middle||High||Compact vigorous bushes on which new inflorescences are simultaneously formed and the fruits ripen|
|Asia||Early||Very high||The bushes are very powerful, the berries are dense and sweet. Resistant to rot and powdery mildew|
|Alba||Early||High||The bushes are medium sized, form a lot of mustache. Fruits are juicy, sweet and fragrant.|
|Honey||Early||High||Large-fruited variety with a very large and sweet berry. Begins to bear fruit in late May. Remontant|
|Temptation||Mid early||Average||A repairing variety with long fruiting (from May to October). It is distinguished by the presence of a nutmeg note in the taste of the fruit.|
It is impossible to say which varieties from the list are the best, because even the most resistant to cold, oversupply or severe lack of moisture and sunlight variety can grow poorly and bear fruit if agricultural technology is not observed.
Choosing a place to plant strawberries
Strawberries are successfully grown in the Urals only if the place is correctly selected for its planting. Whatever the variety, it is important that it grows in conditions of maximum illumination, the absence of flooding and weathering. At the same time, the area where the garden strawberry grows should be fairly well blown by the winds. The fact is that the Urals are characterized by frequent precipitation of growths and mists, which can provoke a surge in the defeat of the buttocks with fungi and rot.
So, the landing place should be:
- High enough for the normal discharge of melt water in the spring, but not on the hill from which snow will blow off in winter.
- Free from high landings for better air circulation.
- Well lit and warmed by the sun.
An equally important place is occupied by such an indicator as the predecessors and neighbors of garden strawberries. The culture is less sick and develops better if in previous years onions and garlic, legumes and greens, beets and carrots, as well as bulb flowers or marigolds were grown at the place of their growth. It is not recommended to grow potatoes, tomatoes, cucumbers and raspberries in the vicinity of strawberry beds.
An ideal soil for growing garden strawberries is a medium loamy mixture, well seasoned with organic matter. Peat soils are recommended to be improved by applying clay and compost and manure, as well as a complex of fertilizers. With a high level of acidity, alkalization with lime or dolomite will be required (one year before planting).
Nutrient organic mixtures must be introduced in two “approaches”: half for digging a shovel with a bayonet, and the residues should be sealed in the topsoil with a rake or a hoe before planting. Together with digging, the place must be thoroughly cleaned of the roots of weeds, and as far as possible to smooth its surface. It is recommended to grow it in one place for no more than 2 years.
Winter protection of strawberries in the Urals
The winter period is the most important when growing berries, and strawberries in the Urals most often die at this time due to freezing or soaking. Complete death of the plant occurs if the temperature of the aerial part of the strawberry is cooled to minus 10 or 15 degrees. If the temperature of the root layer of the soil has dropped to 8-10 degrees below zero, the roots of the plants also die. Moreover, this happens most often in the fall or in the spring, when the surface of the bed is free from snow cover.
To avoid damage to strawberries at low temperatures, it is important to keep its ground part in the fall. In addition, throughout the winter, it is necessary to ensure that the wind does not blow snow from the site. It is recommended to build the simplest snow protection structures in the form of shields. In the spring, you can not allow quick melting of snow on the beds with strawberries. During the period of the greatest risk of freezing, it is recommended to maintain a snow cover of at least 20 cm thick.
The Urals is a fairly favorable habitat for insects that are pests for strawberries. The largest damage to the yield of this crop is caused by spider web and strawberry transparent mites, weevils, aphids and nematodes. Timely struggle with them will allow you to get a high harvest every year.
|Pest||Signs of defeat||Control measures|
|Strawberry mite||The plant lags in growth, ceases to bloom and bear fruit. Prefers wet areas. It is placed on the lower leaves in the outlet, which become curly||Processing before flowering and after harvest by Taurus or Caesar. In case of severe defeat - mowing|
|Spider mite||The plant is covered with spots, merging into light, and then brown spots. The plant is depleted. A spider web is visible on the leaves||Acrofit biopreparation, in case of severe damage - mowing|
|Weevil||The buds on the plant gradually dry. When you remove them, you can notice holes in them||Destruction of damaged buds. Processing with bitter tinctures (tobacco, garlic or wormwood), Iskra or Fitoverm|
|Aphid||The leaves of the plant curl up, become smaller and gradually die off. Productivity declining||Processing plantings Agravertinom or Fitoverm, tinctures of tansy or garlic|
|Nematodes||Bushes lag behind in growth, do not bloom, despite the formation of rare and very small peduncles||No control measures, destruction of plants and soil treatment with quicklime|
|Slug||On the berries and leaves (rarely) appear gnawed parts that quickly lead to decay.||Placement on a bed of stripes with pepper, needles and ash. Spraying plantings in the evening with strong saline or early morning Thunderstorm (in two doses with an interval of 20-25 minutes)|
|Bears||The plant withers, often only in one part of the nest ("family"). Complete death is observed on young landings. On the beds you can see the furrow-moves||Deep digging of the soil, onion infusion or kerosene. Tillage Medvedtoksom or Prestige|
There is a universal remedy for any pests - marigolds. To reduce the risk of pests on the beds with strawberries, it is recommended to sow them in the aisles or along the paths.